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Digital blood flow and plasma endothelin concentration in clinically endotoxemic horses

Nicola J. Menzies-GowDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.

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 MA, VetMB, PhD
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Simon R. BaileyDepartment of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.

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 BVMS, PhD
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Kim StevensDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.

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 MSc
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Lisa KatzDepartment of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.

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 DVM
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Jonathan ElliottDepartment of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.

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 MA, VetMB, PhD
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Celia M. MarrDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.
Present address is Beaufort Cottage Equine Hospital, Rossdale and Partners, Cotton End Rd, Exning, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7NN, United Kingdom.

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 BVMS, MVM, PhD

Abstract

Objective—To measure plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations and digital blood flow in clinically endotoxemic horses.

Animals—To measure plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations and digital blood flow in clinically endotoxemic horses.

Procedure—On days 2 and 5 following surgery, Doppler ultrasonographic digital arterial blood flow measurements were obtained. Hematologic and biochemical analyses were performed, and plasma concentrations of ET-1 and endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) were determined. A scoring system based on 9 clinical variables was used to assign horses to group B (quartile with greatest cumulative score) or group A (remaining 3 quartiles). Follow-up at 2.5 years was obtained by telephone questionnaire.

Results—For all horses on day 2, median (interquartile values) plasma ET-1 concentrations were 1.4 (0.8, 1.7) pg/mL, whereas on day 5, plasma ET-1 concentrations were 1.0 (0.5, 1.6) pg/mL. On day 2, digital blood flow was 0.057 (0.02, 0.07) mL/min in group A horses and 0.035 (0.02, 0.03) mL/min in group B horses. On day 5, plasma ET-1 concentration was significantly (73%) higher in group B horses, compared with group A horses. Thirty of 36 horses were alive at 2.5 years; group A horses were more likely to have survived (odds ratio, 25; 95% confidence interval, 2.4 to 262). Significant associations were found between an increase in digital pulses, hoof wall temperatures, or both and increased digital blood flow (0.14 vs 0.04 mL/min) on day 2 and increased digital arterial diameter (0.32 vs 0.23 cm) on day 5.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses with more severe endotoxemia had decreased digital blood flow, increased plasma ET-1 concentrations, and decreased long-term survival. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:630–636)

Abstract

Objective—To measure plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations and digital blood flow in clinically endotoxemic horses.

Animals—To measure plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations and digital blood flow in clinically endotoxemic horses.

Procedure—On days 2 and 5 following surgery, Doppler ultrasonographic digital arterial blood flow measurements were obtained. Hematologic and biochemical analyses were performed, and plasma concentrations of ET-1 and endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) were determined. A scoring system based on 9 clinical variables was used to assign horses to group B (quartile with greatest cumulative score) or group A (remaining 3 quartiles). Follow-up at 2.5 years was obtained by telephone questionnaire.

Results—For all horses on day 2, median (interquartile values) plasma ET-1 concentrations were 1.4 (0.8, 1.7) pg/mL, whereas on day 5, plasma ET-1 concentrations were 1.0 (0.5, 1.6) pg/mL. On day 2, digital blood flow was 0.057 (0.02, 0.07) mL/min in group A horses and 0.035 (0.02, 0.03) mL/min in group B horses. On day 5, plasma ET-1 concentration was significantly (73%) higher in group B horses, compared with group A horses. Thirty of 36 horses were alive at 2.5 years; group A horses were more likely to have survived (odds ratio, 25; 95% confidence interval, 2.4 to 262). Significant associations were found between an increase in digital pulses, hoof wall temperatures, or both and increased digital blood flow (0.14 vs 0.04 mL/min) on day 2 and increased digital arterial diameter (0.32 vs 0.23 cm) on day 5.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses with more severe endotoxemia had decreased digital blood flow, increased plasma ET-1 concentrations, and decreased long-term survival. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:630–636)