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Experimental canine leptospirosis caused by Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona and bratislava

Justin J. GreenleeDepartment of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.
Present address is Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, PO Box 70, Ames, IA 50011.

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David P. AltBacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50011.

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Carole A. BolinBacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50011.
Present address is Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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Richard L. ZuernerBacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50011.

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Claire B. AndreasenDepartment of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate gross, histopathologic, and serum biochemical findings caused by Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona and bratislava inoculated in dogs.

Animals—Twenty-seven 8-week-old female Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to challenge or control groups. Challenge groups were conjunctivally inoculated on 3 successive days with 5 ×107 L interrogans serovar pomona (n = 12) or serovar bratislava (11). Clinical signs were recorded throughout the experiment, and clinical pathology assays, bacteriologic culture, and necropsies (6 or 7 dogs necropsied at each time point) were done on postinoculation day (PID) 7, 10, 14, and 20.

Results—Infection could not be confirmed in any serovar bratislava–inoculated dog, and control dogs remained healthy throughout the experiment. Positive culture and fluorescent antibody test results were confirmed in 11 of 12 serovar pomona–inoculated dogs. Fever and lethargy starting at PID 7 were the most common clinical signs in serovar pomona–infected dogs. On day 10, gross lesions included multifocal renal and pulmonary hemorrhage and perirenal edema. Serovar pomona–inoculated dogs had histopathologic lesions including hepatitis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia at PID 7, 10, 14, and 20. Increases in BUN, anion gap, and bilirubin concentration occurred on PID 10, 14, and 20. Platelet counts in dogs with positive results of bacteriologic culture were decreased from baseline values on PID 10, 12, and 14.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance— Conjunctival inoculation with L interrogans serovar pomona resulted in a high rate of infection with concomitant hemorrhagic and inflammatory lesions of the kidneys, liver, and lungs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1816–1822)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate gross, histopathologic, and serum biochemical findings caused by Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona and bratislava inoculated in dogs.

Animals—Twenty-seven 8-week-old female Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to challenge or control groups. Challenge groups were conjunctivally inoculated on 3 successive days with 5 ×107 L interrogans serovar pomona (n = 12) or serovar bratislava (11). Clinical signs were recorded throughout the experiment, and clinical pathology assays, bacteriologic culture, and necropsies (6 or 7 dogs necropsied at each time point) were done on postinoculation day (PID) 7, 10, 14, and 20.

Results—Infection could not be confirmed in any serovar bratislava–inoculated dog, and control dogs remained healthy throughout the experiment. Positive culture and fluorescent antibody test results were confirmed in 11 of 12 serovar pomona–inoculated dogs. Fever and lethargy starting at PID 7 were the most common clinical signs in serovar pomona–infected dogs. On day 10, gross lesions included multifocal renal and pulmonary hemorrhage and perirenal edema. Serovar pomona–inoculated dogs had histopathologic lesions including hepatitis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia at PID 7, 10, 14, and 20. Increases in BUN, anion gap, and bilirubin concentration occurred on PID 10, 14, and 20. Platelet counts in dogs with positive results of bacteriologic culture were decreased from baseline values on PID 10, 12, and 14.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance— Conjunctival inoculation with L interrogans serovar pomona resulted in a high rate of infection with concomitant hemorrhagic and inflammatory lesions of the kidneys, liver, and lungs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1816–1822)