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Characterization of protection from systemic infection and disease by use of a modified-live noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 vaccine in experimentally infected calves

Clayton L. KellingDepartment of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0905.

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 DVM, PhD
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Breck D. HunsakerSchering-Plough Animal Health, 1246 W 3200 S, Preston, ID 83263.

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 DVM, PhD
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David J. SteffenDepartment of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0905.

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 DVM, PhD
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Christina L. TopliffDepartment of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0905.

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Omar Y. AbdelmagidSchering-Plough Animal Health, 1246 W 3200 S, Preston, ID 83263.

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Kent M. EskridgeDepartment of Statistics, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0905.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate protection against systemic infection and clinical disease provided by use of a modified-live noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 vaccine in calves challenged with NY-1 BVDV.

Animals—10 calves, 5 to 7 months of age.

Procedures—Calves were allocated (n = 5/group) to be nonvaccinated or vaccinated SC on day 0 with BVDV type 1 (WRL strain). Calves in both groups were challenged intranasally with NY-1 BVDV on day 21. Calves' rectal temperatures and clinical signs of disease were recorded daily, total and differential WBC and platelet counts were performed, and serum neutralizing antibody titers against NY-1 BVDV were determined. Histologic examinations and immunohistochemical analyses to detect gross lesions and distribution of viral antigens, respectively, were performed.

Results—After challenge exposure to NY-1 BVDV, nonvaccinated calves developed high rectal temperatures, increased respiratory rates, viremia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and infection of the thymus. Vaccinated calves did not develop high rectal temperatures or clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Vaccinated calves appeared to be protected against systemic replication of virus in that they did not develop leukopenia, lymphopenia, viremia, or infection of target organs, and infectious virus was not detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or the thymus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The modifiedlive BVDV vaccine protected calves against systemic infection and disease after experimental challenge exposure with NY-1 BVDV. The vaccine protected calves against infection and viremia and prevented infection of target lymphoid cells. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1785–1791)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate protection against systemic infection and clinical disease provided by use of a modified-live noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 vaccine in calves challenged with NY-1 BVDV.

Animals—10 calves, 5 to 7 months of age.

Procedures—Calves were allocated (n = 5/group) to be nonvaccinated or vaccinated SC on day 0 with BVDV type 1 (WRL strain). Calves in both groups were challenged intranasally with NY-1 BVDV on day 21. Calves' rectal temperatures and clinical signs of disease were recorded daily, total and differential WBC and platelet counts were performed, and serum neutralizing antibody titers against NY-1 BVDV were determined. Histologic examinations and immunohistochemical analyses to detect gross lesions and distribution of viral antigens, respectively, were performed.

Results—After challenge exposure to NY-1 BVDV, nonvaccinated calves developed high rectal temperatures, increased respiratory rates, viremia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and infection of the thymus. Vaccinated calves did not develop high rectal temperatures or clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Vaccinated calves appeared to be protected against systemic replication of virus in that they did not develop leukopenia, lymphopenia, viremia, or infection of target organs, and infectious virus was not detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or the thymus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The modifiedlive BVDV vaccine protected calves against systemic infection and disease after experimental challenge exposure with NY-1 BVDV. The vaccine protected calves against infection and viremia and prevented infection of target lymphoid cells. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1785–1791)