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Evaluation of analgesia resulting from extracorporeal shock wave therapy and radial pressure wave therapy in the limbs of horses and sheep

Scott R. McClureDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Iona M. SoneaDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.
Present address is Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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Richard B. EvansDepartment of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Michael J. YaegerDepartment of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Abstract

Objective—To identify the duration and potential mechanisms of analgesia following extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) in limbs of horses and sheep.

Animals—6 horses and 30 sheep.

Procedure—An electrical stimulus was used to identify the nociceptive threshold for each horse daily for 3 days before treatment (baseline) with ESWT or RPWT, 8 hours after treatment, and at 24-hour intervals for 7 days after treatment. Testing was conducted for the treatment field (midmetacarpus or midmetatarsus) and nerve field (medial and lateral forelimb heel bulbs) distal to a treatment site that included the nerve on the abaxial surface of the proximal sesamoid bone. All 4 limbs of 30 sheep were treated with ESWT, RPWT, or a sham treatment. Two sheep were euthanatized daily and tissue harvested for histologic evaluation of nerves, and concentrations of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide were measured in the skin and periosteum.

Results—Values did not differ significantly between baseline and after treatment for the treatment field or nerve field sensation. There was a large difference in the slope when data for horses were plotted for the first 3 days after treatment, compared with the slope for days 4 to 7 after treatment. No differences were found in neuropeptide concentrations after treatment of the sheep, but there was an inflammatory response in the treated nerves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A small cutaneous analgesic effect may exist at the treatment site for approximately 3 days after ESWT or RPWT in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1702–1708)

Abstract

Objective—To identify the duration and potential mechanisms of analgesia following extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) in limbs of horses and sheep.

Animals—6 horses and 30 sheep.

Procedure—An electrical stimulus was used to identify the nociceptive threshold for each horse daily for 3 days before treatment (baseline) with ESWT or RPWT, 8 hours after treatment, and at 24-hour intervals for 7 days after treatment. Testing was conducted for the treatment field (midmetacarpus or midmetatarsus) and nerve field (medial and lateral forelimb heel bulbs) distal to a treatment site that included the nerve on the abaxial surface of the proximal sesamoid bone. All 4 limbs of 30 sheep were treated with ESWT, RPWT, or a sham treatment. Two sheep were euthanatized daily and tissue harvested for histologic evaluation of nerves, and concentrations of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide were measured in the skin and periosteum.

Results—Values did not differ significantly between baseline and after treatment for the treatment field or nerve field sensation. There was a large difference in the slope when data for horses were plotted for the first 3 days after treatment, compared with the slope for days 4 to 7 after treatment. No differences were found in neuropeptide concentrations after treatment of the sheep, but there was an inflammatory response in the treated nerves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A small cutaneous analgesic effect may exist at the treatment site for approximately 3 days after ESWT or RPWT in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1702–1708)