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Comparative cardiovascular, analgesic, and sedative effects of medetomidine, medetomidine-hydromorphone, and medetomidine-butorphanol in dogs

Wei-Chen Kuo DVM, MS1,2 and Robert D. Keegan DVM3
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.
  • | 2 Present address is the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2026.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.

Abstract

Objective—To compare sedative, analgesic, and cardiopulmonary effects after IV administration of medetomidine (20 µg/kg), medetomidine-hydromorphone (20 µg of medetomidine/kg and 0.1 mg of hydromorphone/kg), and medetomidine-butorphanol (20 µg of medetomidine/kg and 0.2 mg of butorphanol tartrate/kg) in dogs.

Animals—6 dogs healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Instruments were surgically inserted, and heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure (CVP), core body temperature, and cardiac output (CO) were measured 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after injection. Cardiac index (CI), stroke volume (SV), stroke index (SI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were calculated. Arterial samples for blood gas analysis were collected 0, 15, and 45 minutes after injection. Intensity of analgesia, degree of sedation, and degree of muscle relaxation were evaluated at aforementioned time points and 75, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 minutes after injection.

Results—Administration of medetomidine, medetomidine-hydromorphone, and medetomidine-butorphanol was associated with increases in SAP, MAP, DAP, MPAP, PCWP, CVP, SVR, PVR, core body temperature, and PaCO2 and decreases in HR, CO, CI, SV, SI, RR, pH, and PaO2. Clinically important differences were not detected among treatments. Medetomidine-hydromorphone and medetomidine-butorphanol provided a longer duration of sedation and better quality of analgesia, compared with medetomidine alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomidine-hydromorphone or medetomidine-butorphanol is associated with improved analgesia and sedation but has cardiopulmonary effects comparable to those for medetomidine alone. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:931–937)

Abstract

Objective—To compare sedative, analgesic, and cardiopulmonary effects after IV administration of medetomidine (20 µg/kg), medetomidine-hydromorphone (20 µg of medetomidine/kg and 0.1 mg of hydromorphone/kg), and medetomidine-butorphanol (20 µg of medetomidine/kg and 0.2 mg of butorphanol tartrate/kg) in dogs.

Animals—6 dogs healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Instruments were surgically inserted, and heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure (CVP), core body temperature, and cardiac output (CO) were measured 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after injection. Cardiac index (CI), stroke volume (SV), stroke index (SI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were calculated. Arterial samples for blood gas analysis were collected 0, 15, and 45 minutes after injection. Intensity of analgesia, degree of sedation, and degree of muscle relaxation were evaluated at aforementioned time points and 75, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 minutes after injection.

Results—Administration of medetomidine, medetomidine-hydromorphone, and medetomidine-butorphanol was associated with increases in SAP, MAP, DAP, MPAP, PCWP, CVP, SVR, PVR, core body temperature, and PaCO2 and decreases in HR, CO, CI, SV, SI, RR, pH, and PaO2. Clinically important differences were not detected among treatments. Medetomidine-hydromorphone and medetomidine-butorphanol provided a longer duration of sedation and better quality of analgesia, compared with medetomidine alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomidine-hydromorphone or medetomidine-butorphanol is associated with improved analgesia and sedation but has cardiopulmonary effects comparable to those for medetomidine alone. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:931–937)