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Assessment of repeatability, reproducibility, and effect of anesthesia on determination of radial and longitudinal left ventricular velocities via tissue Doppler imaging in dogs

Valerie ChetboulUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort and the Unité Pédagogique de chirurgie, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.
Equipe mixte INSERM-Université 00-01, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

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Nicolas AthanassiadisUnité Mixte de Recherches 181 Physiopathologie et Toxicologie Expérimentales, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, 23 chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 03, France.

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Carolina CarlosUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort and the Unité Pédagogique de chirurgie, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

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Audrey NicolleUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort and the Unité Pédagogique de chirurgie, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

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Luca ZilbersteinUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort and the Unité Pédagogique de chirurgie, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

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Jean-Louis PouchelonUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort and the Unité Pédagogique de chirurgie, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.
Equipe mixte INSERM-Université 00-01, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

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Herve P. LefebvreUnité Mixte de Recherches 181 Physiopathologie et Toxicologie Expérimentales, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, 23 chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 03, France.

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Didier ConcordetUnité Mixte de Recherches 181 Physiopathologie et Toxicologie Expérimentales, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, 23 chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 03, France.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine left ventricular free wall (LVFW) motions and assess their intra- and interday variability via tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in healthy awake and anesthetized dogs.

Animals—6 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure—In the first part of the study, 72 TDI examinations (36 radial and 36 longitudinal) were performed by the same observer on 4 days during a 2-week period in all dogs. In the second part, 3 dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and vecuronium. Two measurements of each TDI parameter were made on 2 consecutive cardiac cycles when ventilation was transiently stopped. The TDI parameters included maximal systolic, early, and late diastolic LVFW velocities.

Results—The LVFW velocities were significantly higher in the endocardial than in the epicardial layers and also significantly higher in the basal than in the midsegments in systole, late diastole, and early diastole. The intraday coefficients of variation (CVs) for systole were 16.4% and 22%, and the interday CV values were 11.2% and 16.4% in the endocardial and epicardial layers, respectively. Isoflurane anesthesia significantly improved the intraday CV but induced a decrease in LVFW velocities, except late diastolic in endocardial layers and early diastolic in epicardial layers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Left ventricular motion can be adequately quantified in dogs and can provide new noninvasive indices of myocardial function. General anesthesia improved repeatability of the procedure but cannot be recommended because it induces a decrease in myocardial velocities. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:909–915)

Abstract

Objective—To determine left ventricular free wall (LVFW) motions and assess their intra- and interday variability via tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in healthy awake and anesthetized dogs.

Animals—6 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure—In the first part of the study, 72 TDI examinations (36 radial and 36 longitudinal) were performed by the same observer on 4 days during a 2-week period in all dogs. In the second part, 3 dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and vecuronium. Two measurements of each TDI parameter were made on 2 consecutive cardiac cycles when ventilation was transiently stopped. The TDI parameters included maximal systolic, early, and late diastolic LVFW velocities.

Results—The LVFW velocities were significantly higher in the endocardial than in the epicardial layers and also significantly higher in the basal than in the midsegments in systole, late diastole, and early diastole. The intraday coefficients of variation (CVs) for systole were 16.4% and 22%, and the interday CV values were 11.2% and 16.4% in the endocardial and epicardial layers, respectively. Isoflurane anesthesia significantly improved the intraday CV but induced a decrease in LVFW velocities, except late diastolic in endocardial layers and early diastolic in epicardial layers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Left ventricular motion can be adequately quantified in dogs and can provide new noninvasive indices of myocardial function. General anesthesia improved repeatability of the procedure but cannot be recommended because it induces a decrease in myocardial velocities. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:909–915)