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Quantification, repeatability, and reproducibility of feline radial and longitudinal left ventricular velocities by tissue Doppler imaging

Valérie ChetboulUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94 704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.
Equipe mixte INSERM-Université 00-01, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

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Nicolas AthanassiadisUnité Mixte de Recherches 181 Physiopathologie et Toxicologie Expérimentales, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, 23 chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 03, France.

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Carolina CarlosUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94 704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

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Audrey P. NicolleUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94 704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

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Renaud TissierEquipe mixte INSERM-Université 00-01, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

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Jean-Louis PouchelonUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94 704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.
Equipe mixte INSERM-Université 00-01, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

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Didier ConcordetUnité Mixte de Recherches 181 Physiopathologie et Toxicologie Expérimentales, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, 23 chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 03, France.

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Hervé P. LefebvreUnité Mixte de Recherches 181 Physiopathologie et Toxicologie Expérimentales, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, 23 chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 03, France.

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Abstract

Objective—To measure the radial and longitudinal velocities of several myocardial segments of the left ventricular wall by use of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in healthy cats and determine the repeatability and reproducibility of the technique.

Animals—6 healthy cats.

Procedure—72 TDI examinations were performed on 4 days by the same trained observer. Radial parameters included left endocardial and epicardial myocardial velocities. Longitudinal parameters included left basal, middle, and apical myocardial velocities.

Results—All velocity profiles had 1 positive systolic wave (S) and 2 negative diastolic waves (E and A). Myocardial velocities were higher in the endocardial than epicardial segments during the entire cardiac cycle (systolic wave S, 4.4 ± 0.82 and 1.9 ± 0.55; diastolic wave E, 9.7 ± 1.70 and 2.2 ± 0.74; and diastolic wave A, 5.1 ± 1.56 and 1.4 ± 0.76, respectively). Velocities were also higher in the basal than in the apical segments (systolic wave S, 4.7 ± 0.76 and 0.2 ± 0.11; diastolic wave E, 9.7 ± 1.36 and 0.5 ± 0.17; and diastolic wave A, 3.7 ± 1.51 and 0.2 ± 0.13, respectively). The lowest within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were observed in endocardial segments (8.2% and 6.5% for systolic wave S and diastolic wave E, respectively) and in the basal segment in protodiastole (5.5%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Repeatability and reproducibility of TDI were adequate for measurement of longitudinal and radial left ventricular motion in healthy awake cats. Validation of TDI is a prerequisite before this new technique can be recommended for clinical use. ( Am J Vet Res 2004; 65:566–572)

Abstract

Objective—To measure the radial and longitudinal velocities of several myocardial segments of the left ventricular wall by use of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in healthy cats and determine the repeatability and reproducibility of the technique.

Animals—6 healthy cats.

Procedure—72 TDI examinations were performed on 4 days by the same trained observer. Radial parameters included left endocardial and epicardial myocardial velocities. Longitudinal parameters included left basal, middle, and apical myocardial velocities.

Results—All velocity profiles had 1 positive systolic wave (S) and 2 negative diastolic waves (E and A). Myocardial velocities were higher in the endocardial than epicardial segments during the entire cardiac cycle (systolic wave S, 4.4 ± 0.82 and 1.9 ± 0.55; diastolic wave E, 9.7 ± 1.70 and 2.2 ± 0.74; and diastolic wave A, 5.1 ± 1.56 and 1.4 ± 0.76, respectively). Velocities were also higher in the basal than in the apical segments (systolic wave S, 4.7 ± 0.76 and 0.2 ± 0.11; diastolic wave E, 9.7 ± 1.36 and 0.5 ± 0.17; and diastolic wave A, 3.7 ± 1.51 and 0.2 ± 0.13, respectively). The lowest within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were observed in endocardial segments (8.2% and 6.5% for systolic wave S and diastolic wave E, respectively) and in the basal segment in protodiastole (5.5%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Repeatability and reproducibility of TDI were adequate for measurement of longitudinal and radial left ventricular motion in healthy awake cats. Validation of TDI is a prerequisite before this new technique can be recommended for clinical use. ( Am J Vet Res 2004; 65:566–572)