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Three-dimensional motion pattern of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs

Monika I. Benninger Dr med vet1,2, Gabriela S. Seiler Dr med vet3,4, Leanne E. Robinson BSc5, Stephen J. Ferguson PhD6, Harald M. Bonél Dr med7, André R. Busato Dr med vet habil8, and Johann Lang Dr med vet habil9
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  • 1 Division of Radiology, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Bern, Länggassstrasse 128, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.
  • | 2 Present address is Tierklinik AW, Muhenstrasse 56, 5036 Oberentfelden, Switzerland.
  • | 3 Division of Radiology, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Bern, Länggassstrasse 128, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.
  • | 4 Present address is School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.
  • | 5 M. E. Müller Research Center for Orthopedic Surgery, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.
  • | 6 M. E. Müller Research Center for Orthopedic Surgery, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.
  • | 7 Institute for Diagnostic Radiology, University of Bern—Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.
  • | 8 M. E. Müller Research Center for Orthopedic Surgery, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.
  • | 9 Division of Radiology, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Bern, Länggassstrasse 128, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the 3-dimensional motion pattern including main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs.

Animals—Vertebral columns of 9 German Shepherd Dogs (GSDs) and 16 dogs of other breeds with similar body weights and body conditions .

Procedure—Main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column (L4 to S1) were determined by use of a testing apparatus that permitted precise application of known pure moments to the vertebral column. Motion was compared between GSDs and dogs of other breeds.

Results—All specimens had a similar motion pattern consisting of main motion and a certain amount of coupled motion including translation. Vertebral columns of GSDs had significantly less main motion in all directions than that of dogs of other breeds. Translation was similar in GSDs and dogs of other breeds and was smallest at the lumbosacral motion segment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that motion in the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs is complex and provided a basis for further studies evaluating abnormal vertebral columns. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:544–552)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the 3-dimensional motion pattern including main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs.

Animals—Vertebral columns of 9 German Shepherd Dogs (GSDs) and 16 dogs of other breeds with similar body weights and body conditions .

Procedure—Main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column (L4 to S1) were determined by use of a testing apparatus that permitted precise application of known pure moments to the vertebral column. Motion was compared between GSDs and dogs of other breeds.

Results—All specimens had a similar motion pattern consisting of main motion and a certain amount of coupled motion including translation. Vertebral columns of GSDs had significantly less main motion in all directions than that of dogs of other breeds. Translation was similar in GSDs and dogs of other breeds and was smallest at the lumbosacral motion segment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that motion in the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs is complex and provided a basis for further studies evaluating abnormal vertebral columns. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:544–552)