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Use of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimation of total body water and extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes in horses

C. Langdon FieldingVeterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Present address is Loomis Basin Veterinary Center, 3901 Sierra College Blvd, Loomis, CA 95650.

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K. Gary MagdesianDepartment of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Denise A. ElliottDepartment of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Present address is Waltham USA Inc, 3250 E 44th St, Vernon, CA 90058.

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Larry D. CowgillDepartment of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Gary P. CarlsonDepartment of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) for estimating total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), and intracellular fluid volume (ICFV) in horses.

Animals—9 healthy mares.

Procedure—TBW and ECFV were measured by use of deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution techniques, respectively. Intracellular fluid volume was calculated as the difference between TBW and ECFV. Concurrently, MF-BIA recordings were obtained by use of 4 anatomic electrode positions and 3 measurements of length. Models for MF-BIA data were created for all combinations of length and anatomic electrode position. Models were evaluated to determine the position-length configuration that provided the most consistent estimates of TBW, ECFV, and ICFV, compared with values determined by use of the dilution techniques.

Results—Positioning electrodes over the ipsilateral carpus and tarsus and use of height at the tuber sacrale for length provided the closest estimate between values for TBW, ECFV, and ICFV predicted by use of MF-BIA and measured values obtained by dilutional techniques. This model had the narrowest 95% limits of agreement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MF-BIA techniques have been used to predict changes in TBW, ECFV, and ICFV in healthy and diseased humans. Results reported in this study provide an equine-specific model to serve as the basis for further evaluation of MF-BIA in horses with altered fluid states. The MF-BIA techniques have a number of potential applications for use in horses, including evaluation of exercise physiology, pharmacologic studies, and critical-care management. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:320–326)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) for estimating total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), and intracellular fluid volume (ICFV) in horses.

Animals—9 healthy mares.

Procedure—TBW and ECFV were measured by use of deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution techniques, respectively. Intracellular fluid volume was calculated as the difference between TBW and ECFV. Concurrently, MF-BIA recordings were obtained by use of 4 anatomic electrode positions and 3 measurements of length. Models for MF-BIA data were created for all combinations of length and anatomic electrode position. Models were evaluated to determine the position-length configuration that provided the most consistent estimates of TBW, ECFV, and ICFV, compared with values determined by use of the dilution techniques.

Results—Positioning electrodes over the ipsilateral carpus and tarsus and use of height at the tuber sacrale for length provided the closest estimate between values for TBW, ECFV, and ICFV predicted by use of MF-BIA and measured values obtained by dilutional techniques. This model had the narrowest 95% limits of agreement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MF-BIA techniques have been used to predict changes in TBW, ECFV, and ICFV in healthy and diseased humans. Results reported in this study provide an equine-specific model to serve as the basis for further evaluation of MF-BIA in horses with altered fluid states. The MF-BIA techniques have a number of potential applications for use in horses, including evaluation of exercise physiology, pharmacologic studies, and critical-care management. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:320–326)