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Concentrations of gentamicin in serum and bronchial lavage fluid after once-daily aerosol administration to horses for seven days

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  • 1 Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center, Virginia- Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Leesburg, VA 20177.
  • | 2 Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center, Virginia- Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Leesburg, VA 20177.
  • | 3 Present address is Merial Ltd, 3239 Satellite Blvd, Duluth, GA 30096.

Abstract

Objective—To assess gentamicin concentrations in serum and bronchial lavage fluid (BLF) of horses during a 24-hour period after once-daily aerosol administration of gentamicin (GAER) for 7 days and the pattern and degree of bronchial tree inflammation associated with repeated GAER.

Animals—13 healthy adult horses (9 geldings and 4 mares).

Procedure—The treatment group comprised 8 horses, and 5 horses were untreated control animals. Gentamicin (20 mL of gentamicin [50 mg/mL]) was administered via aerosol once daily for 7 days. Samples of serum and BLF were obtained from all horses before GAER and 0.5, 4, 8, and 24 hours after the final day of GAER. Gentamicin concentrations were determined for all samples from treated horses, and cytologic examinations were performed on all BLF samples.

Results—Peak median BLF gentamicin concentration detected at 0.5 hours was 2.50 µg/mL. Median serum gentamicin concentration was < 0.50 µg/mL at all time points. Significant differences were not observed in total nucleated cell counts or differential cell counts in BLF between groups at any time point. Neutrophil count in BLF for all horses was increased over baseline at 4 and 24 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—We did not detect evidence of gentamicin accumulation or respiratory inflammation after once-daily GAER for 7 days. This protocol appears unlikely to result in local or systemic toxicosis. Repeated daily GAER to horses appears to be a safe procedure and may have clinical use in the treatment of horses with bacterial infections of the airways. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:173–178)

Abstract

Objective—To assess gentamicin concentrations in serum and bronchial lavage fluid (BLF) of horses during a 24-hour period after once-daily aerosol administration of gentamicin (GAER) for 7 days and the pattern and degree of bronchial tree inflammation associated with repeated GAER.

Animals—13 healthy adult horses (9 geldings and 4 mares).

Procedure—The treatment group comprised 8 horses, and 5 horses were untreated control animals. Gentamicin (20 mL of gentamicin [50 mg/mL]) was administered via aerosol once daily for 7 days. Samples of serum and BLF were obtained from all horses before GAER and 0.5, 4, 8, and 24 hours after the final day of GAER. Gentamicin concentrations were determined for all samples from treated horses, and cytologic examinations were performed on all BLF samples.

Results—Peak median BLF gentamicin concentration detected at 0.5 hours was 2.50 µg/mL. Median serum gentamicin concentration was < 0.50 µg/mL at all time points. Significant differences were not observed in total nucleated cell counts or differential cell counts in BLF between groups at any time point. Neutrophil count in BLF for all horses was increased over baseline at 4 and 24 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—We did not detect evidence of gentamicin accumulation or respiratory inflammation after once-daily GAER for 7 days. This protocol appears unlikely to result in local or systemic toxicosis. Repeated daily GAER to horses appears to be a safe procedure and may have clinical use in the treatment of horses with bacterial infections of the airways. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:173–178)