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Effects of ischemia and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor flunixin on in vitro passage of lipopolysaccharide across equine jejunum

Julia E. TomlinsonDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
Present address is College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762.

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 BVSc, PhD
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Anthony T. BlikslagerDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.

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 DVM, PhD

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether ischemia and flunixin affect in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) absorption in samples of the jejunum of horses.

Animals—12 horses.

Procedure—Horses were anesthetized, a midline celiotomy was performed, and the jejunum was located. Two 30-cm sections of jejunum (60 cm apart) were selected. One segment was designated as control tissue; ischemia was induced in the other segment for 120 minutes. Horses were then euthanatized. Mucosa from each jejunal segment was mounted on Ussing chambers and treated with or without flunixin. Tissues from 6 horses were used to assess permeability to radiolabeled LPS; mucosal samples from the remaining 6 horses were incubated with fluorescent-labeled LPS (FITC-LPS) and examined histologically. Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and production of LPS-binding protein (LBP) were assessed as indicators of mucosal response to LPS.

Results—Ischemia significantly increased mucosal permeability to LPS, but by 180 minutes, the mucosa was not more permeable than control tissue. Flunixin treatment adversely affected intestinal barrier function throughout the experiment but did not result in increased mucosal permeability to LPS. Compared with control tissues, LBP production was increased by ischemia and reduced by exposure to LPS. In ischemic tissue, FITC-LPS entered the lamina propria but TNF-α was produced on the mucosal side only, indicating little response to the absorbed LPS.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ischemia increased LPS passage across equine jejunal mucosa. Flunixin delayed mucosal recovery but did not exacerbate LPS absorption. Evaluation of the clinical importance of flunixin-associated delayed mucosal recovery requires further in vivo investigation. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1377–1383)

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether ischemia and flunixin affect in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) absorption in samples of the jejunum of horses.

Animals—12 horses.

Procedure—Horses were anesthetized, a midline celiotomy was performed, and the jejunum was located. Two 30-cm sections of jejunum (60 cm apart) were selected. One segment was designated as control tissue; ischemia was induced in the other segment for 120 minutes. Horses were then euthanatized. Mucosa from each jejunal segment was mounted on Ussing chambers and treated with or without flunixin. Tissues from 6 horses were used to assess permeability to radiolabeled LPS; mucosal samples from the remaining 6 horses were incubated with fluorescent-labeled LPS (FITC-LPS) and examined histologically. Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and production of LPS-binding protein (LBP) were assessed as indicators of mucosal response to LPS.

Results—Ischemia significantly increased mucosal permeability to LPS, but by 180 minutes, the mucosa was not more permeable than control tissue. Flunixin treatment adversely affected intestinal barrier function throughout the experiment but did not result in increased mucosal permeability to LPS. Compared with control tissues, LBP production was increased by ischemia and reduced by exposure to LPS. In ischemic tissue, FITC-LPS entered the lamina propria but TNF-α was produced on the mucosal side only, indicating little response to the absorbed LPS.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ischemia increased LPS passage across equine jejunal mucosa. Flunixin delayed mucosal recovery but did not exacerbate LPS absorption. Evaluation of the clinical importance of flunixin-associated delayed mucosal recovery requires further in vivo investigation. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1377–1383)