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Tissue Doppler assessment of diastolic and systolic alterations of radial and longitudinal left ventricular motions in Golden Retrievers during the preclinical phase of cardiomyopathy associated with muscular dystrophy

Valérie ChetboulUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons- Alfort, France.
INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) 00-01, Kremlin-Bicêtre, 63 rue Gabriel Péri, 94276 France.

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Carolina CarlosUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons- Alfort, France.

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Stephane BlotLaboratoire de Neurobiologie et Unité d'Etude et Thérapie des Myopathies, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons- Alfort, France.

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Jean Laurent ThibaudLaboratoire de Neurobiologie et Unité d'Etude et Thérapie des Myopathies, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons- Alfort, France.

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Catherine EscriouLaboratoire de Neurobiologie et Unité d'Etude et Thérapie des Myopathies, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons- Alfort, France.

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Renaud TissierINSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) 00-01, Kremlin-Bicêtre, 63 rue Gabriel Péri, 94276 France.

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Jose Luis RetortilloUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons- Alfort, France.

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Jean-Louis PouchelonUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 7 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons- Alfort, France.
INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) 00-01, Kremlin-Bicêtre, 63 rue Gabriel Péri, 94276 France.

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Abstract

Objective—To quantify radial and longitudinal left ventricular free wall (LVFW) velocities in dogs during the preclinical phase of Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD)-associated cardiomyopathy by use of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI).

Animals—9 dogs with GRMD and 6 healthy control dogs.

Procedure—All dogs (< 3 years old) were examined via conventional echocardiography and 2-dimensional color TDI. Myocardial velocities in the LVFW were recorded from right parasternal ventricular short-axis (radial motion) and left apical 4-chamber (longitudinal motion) views. Cardiac assessments via TDI included maximal systolic and early and late diastolic LVFW velocities in the endocardial and epicardial layers (for radial motion) and in the basal and apical segments (for longitudinal motion).

Results—No notable ventricular dilatation or alteration of inotropism was detected in dogs with GRMD via conventional echocardiography. Compared with healthy dogs, endocardial velocities were significantly decreased in dogs with GRMD, resulting in marked decreases in radial myocardial velocity gradients during systole and early and late diastole. Similarly, basal and apical velocities were significantly decreased in systole and the former also in early diastole, resulting in significant decreases in the 2 corresponding longitudinal myocardial velocity gradients. The radial epicardial and longitudinal late diastolic velocities were comparable in the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that GRMD-associated cardiomyopathy in dogs is associated with early marked dysfunction of both radial and longitudinal LVFW motions. These combined regional myocardial abnormalities might be useful criteria for detection of dilated cardiomyopathy at the preclinical stage of the disease in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1335–1341)

Abstract

Objective—To quantify radial and longitudinal left ventricular free wall (LVFW) velocities in dogs during the preclinical phase of Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD)-associated cardiomyopathy by use of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI).

Animals—9 dogs with GRMD and 6 healthy control dogs.

Procedure—All dogs (< 3 years old) were examined via conventional echocardiography and 2-dimensional color TDI. Myocardial velocities in the LVFW were recorded from right parasternal ventricular short-axis (radial motion) and left apical 4-chamber (longitudinal motion) views. Cardiac assessments via TDI included maximal systolic and early and late diastolic LVFW velocities in the endocardial and epicardial layers (for radial motion) and in the basal and apical segments (for longitudinal motion).

Results—No notable ventricular dilatation or alteration of inotropism was detected in dogs with GRMD via conventional echocardiography. Compared with healthy dogs, endocardial velocities were significantly decreased in dogs with GRMD, resulting in marked decreases in radial myocardial velocity gradients during systole and early and late diastole. Similarly, basal and apical velocities were significantly decreased in systole and the former also in early diastole, resulting in significant decreases in the 2 corresponding longitudinal myocardial velocity gradients. The radial epicardial and longitudinal late diastolic velocities were comparable in the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that GRMD-associated cardiomyopathy in dogs is associated with early marked dysfunction of both radial and longitudinal LVFW motions. These combined regional myocardial abnormalities might be useful criteria for detection of dilated cardiomyopathy at the preclinical stage of the disease in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1335–1341)