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Correlation of ultrasonographic observations with anatomic features and radiography of the elbow joint in dogs

Van W. Knox IVDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Chandra M. SehgalDepartment of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Andrew K. W. WoodDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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 MVSc, PhD

Abstract

Objective—To define the ultrasonographic appearance of the elbow joint of dogs and to develop an ultrasonographic imaging protocol to reliably accomplish complete evaluation of that joint.

Animals—11 clinically normal mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Ultrasonographic observations (by use of a 5 to 10 MHz linear array probe) were made of 22 elbow joints in cadaveric forelimbs from clinically normal dogs. Images in standard anatomic planes were recorded with a multi-image camera, on videotape, or onto a computer. The anatomic plane of the ultrasonographic beam and position of the ultrasonographic probe were also recorded. Dissection of each elbow joint was performed, and anatomic features were correlated with ultrasonographic images.

Results—Structures clearly identified ultrasonographically included the lateral and medial humeral epicondyles, the humeroradial and humeroulnar joints, anconeal process, medial coronoid process, hyaline cartilage covering the proximal articular surface of the radius, collateral ligaments, tendons of triceps brachii and supinator muscles, and the supinator tendon and sesamoid in the supinator cartilage. An ultrasonographic imaging protocol for examination of the elbow joint was developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Precise correlations were established between the gross anatomic appearance of the elbow joint and the ultrasonographic images of its component structures. The ultrasonographic imaging protocol will enable complete examination of all regions of the joint for detection of pathologic lesions. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:721–726)

Abstract

Objective—To define the ultrasonographic appearance of the elbow joint of dogs and to develop an ultrasonographic imaging protocol to reliably accomplish complete evaluation of that joint.

Animals—11 clinically normal mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Ultrasonographic observations (by use of a 5 to 10 MHz linear array probe) were made of 22 elbow joints in cadaveric forelimbs from clinically normal dogs. Images in standard anatomic planes were recorded with a multi-image camera, on videotape, or onto a computer. The anatomic plane of the ultrasonographic beam and position of the ultrasonographic probe were also recorded. Dissection of each elbow joint was performed, and anatomic features were correlated with ultrasonographic images.

Results—Structures clearly identified ultrasonographically included the lateral and medial humeral epicondyles, the humeroradial and humeroulnar joints, anconeal process, medial coronoid process, hyaline cartilage covering the proximal articular surface of the radius, collateral ligaments, tendons of triceps brachii and supinator muscles, and the supinator tendon and sesamoid in the supinator cartilage. An ultrasonographic imaging protocol for examination of the elbow joint was developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Precise correlations were established between the gross anatomic appearance of the elbow joint and the ultrasonographic images of its component structures. The ultrasonographic imaging protocol will enable complete examination of all regions of the joint for detection of pathologic lesions. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:721–726)