Evaluation of the local analgesic effect of ketamine in the palmar digital nerve block at the base of the proximal sesamoid (abaxial sesamoid block) in horses

F. Javier López-Sanromán Departamento de Patología Animal II, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

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Jorge M. Cruz Departamento de Patología Animal II, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

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Martín Santos Departamento de Patología Animal II, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

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Rubén A. Mazzini Departamento de Patología Animal II, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

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Agustín Tabanera Servicio Veterinario de la Guardia Real, El Pardo, Madrid, Spain.

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Francisco J. Tendillo Departamento de Patología Animal II, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the local analgesic effect of ketamine in a palmar digital nerve block at the base of the proximal sesamoid (abaxial sesamoid block) in horses.

Animals—36 mature healthy Andalusian horses.

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 9 horses each and received an abaxial sesamoid block in a randomly chosen forelimb with 1 of the following: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, 1% ketamine solution, 2% ketamine solution, or 3% ketamine solution. To determine analgesia, the radiant heat lamp-hoof withdrawal model was used as a noxious thermal stimulus. Before each nerve block, baseline hoof withdrawal reflex latency (HWRL, time between lamp illumination and withdrawal of the hoof) was determined; after the nerve block, local analgesic effects were determined by measuring HWRL at 2 and 5 minutes after injection and then every 5 minutes for a total period of 1 hour.

Results—Significant differences in HWRL were found between baseline values and values at 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with ketamine. Significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 10 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 1 or 2% ketamine solution. Similarly, significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 3% ketamine solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abaxial sesamoid block with ketamine ensures adequate analgesia in horses with an onset of action of 2 minutes and a maximal duration of action of 15 minutes. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:475–478)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the local analgesic effect of ketamine in a palmar digital nerve block at the base of the proximal sesamoid (abaxial sesamoid block) in horses.

Animals—36 mature healthy Andalusian horses.

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 9 horses each and received an abaxial sesamoid block in a randomly chosen forelimb with 1 of the following: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, 1% ketamine solution, 2% ketamine solution, or 3% ketamine solution. To determine analgesia, the radiant heat lamp-hoof withdrawal model was used as a noxious thermal stimulus. Before each nerve block, baseline hoof withdrawal reflex latency (HWRL, time between lamp illumination and withdrawal of the hoof) was determined; after the nerve block, local analgesic effects were determined by measuring HWRL at 2 and 5 minutes after injection and then every 5 minutes for a total period of 1 hour.

Results—Significant differences in HWRL were found between baseline values and values at 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with ketamine. Significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 10 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 1 or 2% ketamine solution. Similarly, significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 3% ketamine solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abaxial sesamoid block with ketamine ensures adequate analgesia in horses with an onset of action of 2 minutes and a maximal duration of action of 15 minutes. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:475–478)

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