Microvascular anatomy of the third compartment of the stomach of llamas

Linda M. Van Hoogmoed Comparative Gastroenterology Laboratory, Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Faye A. Harmon Comparative Gastroenterology Laboratory, Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Jack Snyder Comparative Gastroenterology Laboratory, Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Abstract

Objective—To characterize the vascular anatomy of the third compartment of the stomach of llamas.

Animals—7 adult llamas.

Procedure—Immediately after each llama was euthanatized, vascular replicas of tissue from the third compartment were prepared by use of methylmethacrylate monomer and catalyst. Following chemical removal of tissue, the casts were further prepared for examination via scanning electron microscopy. By use of barium solution, microangiography was also performed on fixed tissue samples; the infused tissue was sectioned and imaged radiographically. Tissue samples were also collected for histologic evaluation after fixation and H&E staining.

Results—The third compartment was supplied by 4 pairs of primary arteries and veins located around the circumference of the structure. From these vessels, smaller arteries and veins branched to supply the serosal surface and penetrated deeper through the tunica muscularis to supply the submucosal and mucosal layers. An extensive capillary network was arranged in a hexagonal array surrounding the gastric glands, such that the mucosal aspect of the replicas had a honeycomb-like appearance. Histologically, variably sized villous projections lined by a single layer of epithelial cells with an extensive glandular network were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The third compartment of the stomach of llamas is a highly vascular structure with an extensive anastomotic capillary network at the luminal surface. Branching vessels provide extensive collateral circulation, and it appears that surgical incisions should heal well. Incisions in the third compartment should be oriented parallel to the longitudinal plane. (Am J Vet Res 2003; 64:346–350)

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the vascular anatomy of the third compartment of the stomach of llamas.

Animals—7 adult llamas.

Procedure—Immediately after each llama was euthanatized, vascular replicas of tissue from the third compartment were prepared by use of methylmethacrylate monomer and catalyst. Following chemical removal of tissue, the casts were further prepared for examination via scanning electron microscopy. By use of barium solution, microangiography was also performed on fixed tissue samples; the infused tissue was sectioned and imaged radiographically. Tissue samples were also collected for histologic evaluation after fixation and H&E staining.

Results—The third compartment was supplied by 4 pairs of primary arteries and veins located around the circumference of the structure. From these vessels, smaller arteries and veins branched to supply the serosal surface and penetrated deeper through the tunica muscularis to supply the submucosal and mucosal layers. An extensive capillary network was arranged in a hexagonal array surrounding the gastric glands, such that the mucosal aspect of the replicas had a honeycomb-like appearance. Histologically, variably sized villous projections lined by a single layer of epithelial cells with an extensive glandular network were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The third compartment of the stomach of llamas is a highly vascular structure with an extensive anastomotic capillary network at the luminal surface. Branching vessels provide extensive collateral circulation, and it appears that surgical incisions should heal well. Incisions in the third compartment should be oriented parallel to the longitudinal plane. (Am J Vet Res 2003; 64:346–350)

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