Evaluation of the effects of inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme with enalapril in dogs with induced chronic renal insufficiency

Scott A. Brown Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

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Delmar R. Finco Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

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Cathy A. Brown Department of Athens Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

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Wayne A. Crowell Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

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Roberto Alva Merial Limited, Duluth, GA 30096.

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Glenn F. Ericsson Merial Limited, Duluth, GA 30096.

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Tanya Cooper Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril would lower systemic arterial and glomerular capillary pressure and reduce the magnitude of renal injury in a canine model of renal insufficiency.

Animals—18 adult dogs that had renal mass reduced by partial nephrectomy.

Procedure—After surgical reduction of renal mass and baseline measurements, dogs in 2 equal groups received either placebo (group 1) or enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; group 2) for 6 months.

Results—Values for systemic mean arterial blood pressure determined by indirect and direct measurement after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively, were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1. During treatment, monthly urine protein-to-creatinine ratios were consistently lower in group 2 than in group 1, although values were significantly different only at 3 months. At 6 months, significant reduction in glomerular capillary pressure in group 2 was detected, compared with group 1, but glomerular filtration rate in group 2 was not compromised. Glomerular hypertrophy, assessed by measurement of planar surface area of glomeruli, was similar in both groups. Glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were significantly less in group 2, compared with group 1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme was effective in modulating progressive renal injury, which was associated with reduction of glomerular and systemic hypertension and proteinuria but not glomerular hypertrophy. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme may be effective for modulating progression of renal disease in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:321–327)

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril would lower systemic arterial and glomerular capillary pressure and reduce the magnitude of renal injury in a canine model of renal insufficiency.

Animals—18 adult dogs that had renal mass reduced by partial nephrectomy.

Procedure—After surgical reduction of renal mass and baseline measurements, dogs in 2 equal groups received either placebo (group 1) or enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; group 2) for 6 months.

Results—Values for systemic mean arterial blood pressure determined by indirect and direct measurement after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively, were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1. During treatment, monthly urine protein-to-creatinine ratios were consistently lower in group 2 than in group 1, although values were significantly different only at 3 months. At 6 months, significant reduction in glomerular capillary pressure in group 2 was detected, compared with group 1, but glomerular filtration rate in group 2 was not compromised. Glomerular hypertrophy, assessed by measurement of planar surface area of glomeruli, was similar in both groups. Glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were significantly less in group 2, compared with group 1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme was effective in modulating progressive renal injury, which was associated with reduction of glomerular and systemic hypertension and proteinuria but not glomerular hypertrophy. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme may be effective for modulating progression of renal disease in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:321–327)

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