Advertisement

Evaluation of gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in clinically normal dogs

John T. PeacockDepartment of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.
present address is South Texas Veterinary Specialists, 8503 Broadway, Ste 105, San Antonio, TX 78217.

Search for other papers by John T. Peacock in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Theresa W. FossumDepartment of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.
Michael E. DeBakey Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.

Search for other papers by Theresa W. Fossum in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Anne M. BahrDepartments of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.

Search for other papers by Anne M. Bahr in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
,
Matthew W. MillerDepartment of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.
Michael E. DeBakey Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.

Search for other papers by Matthew W. Miller in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
, and
John F. EdwardsDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.

Search for other papers by John F. Edwards in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD

Abstract

Objective—To devise a technique for gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in dogs and determine effects of complete occlusion of the caudal vena cava.

Animals—8 mixed-breed hounds that weighed between 25 and 30 kg.

Procedure—Baseline evaluation of dogs included serum biochemical analyses and determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with dynamic renal scintigraphy and plasma clearance analysis. An occluder was placed around the vena cava in the region cranial to the renal veins. The occluder was attached to a vascular access port. The vena cava was gradually occluded over 2 weeks. The GFR was measured every 2 weeks after surgery, and venograms were performed every 3 weeks after surgery. Blood samples were collected every 48 hours for the first week and then weekly thereafter to measure BUN and creatinine concentrations and activities of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine kinase. Dogs were euthanatized 6 weeks after surgery, and tissues were submitted for histologic examination. The GFR and biochemical data were compared with baseline values.

Results—Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava was easily and consistently performed with this method, and adverse clinical signs were not detected. Formation of collateral vessels allowed overall GFR to remain constant despite a decrease in function of the left kidney. Measured biochemical values did not deviate from reference ranges.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava may allow removal of adrenal gland tumors with vascular invasion that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to resect. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1347–1353)

Abstract

Objective—To devise a technique for gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in dogs and determine effects of complete occlusion of the caudal vena cava.

Animals—8 mixed-breed hounds that weighed between 25 and 30 kg.

Procedure—Baseline evaluation of dogs included serum biochemical analyses and determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with dynamic renal scintigraphy and plasma clearance analysis. An occluder was placed around the vena cava in the region cranial to the renal veins. The occluder was attached to a vascular access port. The vena cava was gradually occluded over 2 weeks. The GFR was measured every 2 weeks after surgery, and venograms were performed every 3 weeks after surgery. Blood samples were collected every 48 hours for the first week and then weekly thereafter to measure BUN and creatinine concentrations and activities of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine kinase. Dogs were euthanatized 6 weeks after surgery, and tissues were submitted for histologic examination. The GFR and biochemical data were compared with baseline values.

Results—Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava was easily and consistently performed with this method, and adverse clinical signs were not detected. Formation of collateral vessels allowed overall GFR to remain constant despite a decrease in function of the left kidney. Measured biochemical values did not deviate from reference ranges.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava may allow removal of adrenal gland tumors with vascular invasion that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to resect. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1347–1353)