Advertisement

Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration in green iguanas (Iguana iguana)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Present address is Riverbanks Zoo and Garden, 500 Wildlife Pkwy, Columbia, SC 29210.
  • | 3 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Zoological Society of San Diego, PO Box 120551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551.
  • | 5 Environmental Toxicology Extension, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 6 Environmental Toxicology Extension, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium after IM and SC administration in green iguanas.

Animals—6 male and 4 female adult green iguanas.

Procedure—In a crossover design, 5 iguanas received a single dose of ceftiofur sodium (5 mg/kg) IM, and 5 iguanas received the same dose SC. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, and 40 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. After a 10-week washout period, each iguana was given the same dose via the reciprocal administration route, and blood was collected in the same fashion. Ceftiofur free-acid equivalents were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—The first phase intercepts were significantly different between the 2 administration routes. Mean maximum plasma concentration was significantly higher with the IM (28.6 ± 8.0 µg/mL) than the SC (18.6 ± 8.3 µg/mL) administration route. There were no significant differences between terminal halflives (harmonic mean via IM route, 15.7 ± 4.7 hours; harmonic mean via SC route, 19.7 ± 6.7 hours) and mean areas under the curve measured to the last time point (IM route, 11,722 ± 7,907 µg·h/mL; SC route, 12,143 ± 9,633 µg·h/mL). Ceftiofur free-acid equivalent concentrations were maintained ≥ 2 µg/mL for > 24 hours via both routes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A suggested dosing schedule for ceftiofur sodium in green iguanas for microbes susceptible at > 2 µg/mL would be 5 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1278–1282)

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium after IM and SC administration in green iguanas.

Animals—6 male and 4 female adult green iguanas.

Procedure—In a crossover design, 5 iguanas received a single dose of ceftiofur sodium (5 mg/kg) IM, and 5 iguanas received the same dose SC. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, and 40 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. After a 10-week washout period, each iguana was given the same dose via the reciprocal administration route, and blood was collected in the same fashion. Ceftiofur free-acid equivalents were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—The first phase intercepts were significantly different between the 2 administration routes. Mean maximum plasma concentration was significantly higher with the IM (28.6 ± 8.0 µg/mL) than the SC (18.6 ± 8.3 µg/mL) administration route. There were no significant differences between terminal halflives (harmonic mean via IM route, 15.7 ± 4.7 hours; harmonic mean via SC route, 19.7 ± 6.7 hours) and mean areas under the curve measured to the last time point (IM route, 11,722 ± 7,907 µg·h/mL; SC route, 12,143 ± 9,633 µg·h/mL). Ceftiofur free-acid equivalent concentrations were maintained ≥ 2 µg/mL for > 24 hours via both routes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A suggested dosing schedule for ceftiofur sodium in green iguanas for microbes susceptible at > 2 µg/mL would be 5 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1278–1282)