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Comparison between invasive hemodynamic measurements and noninvasive assessment of left ventricular diastolic function by use of Doppler echocardiography in healthy anesthetized cats

Karsten E. Schober PD, Dr med vet habil1,2, Virginia Luis Fuentes DVC, PhD3,4, and John D. Bonagura DVM5,6
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Medicine & Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 23, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Medicine & Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 4 Present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Medicine & Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 6 Present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Abstract

Objective—To compare Doppler echocardiographic variables of left ventricular (LV) function with those obtained invasively via cardiac catheterization under a range of hemodynamic conditions.

Animals—7 healthy anesthetized cats (1 to 3 years of age).

Procedure—Cats were anesthetized and instrumented to measure the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau []), LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), peak negative and positive rate of change of LV pressure, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output. Echocardiographic variables of diastolic function (isovolumic relaxation time [IVRT], early LV flow propagation velocity [Vp], transmitral and pulmonary venous flow velocity indices, and LV tissue Doppler imaging indices) were measured simultaneously over a range of hemodynamic states induced by treatments with esmolol, dobutamine, cilobradine, and volume loading. Correlation between invasive and noninvasive measures of LV filling was determined by univariate and multivariate regression analyses.

Results—Significant correlations were found between and IVRT, peak Vp, peak late transmitral flow velocity, and peak systolic pulmonary venous flow velocity. A significant correlation was found between LVEDP and early diastolic transmitral flow velocity (peak E) and the ratio of peak E to peak Vp, but not between LVEDP and peak Vp.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—IVRT and Vp can be used as noninvasive indices of LV relaxation; Vp was independent of preload and heart rate in this study. The E:Vp ratio may be useful as an indicator of LV filling pressure. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:93–103)

Abstract

Objective—To compare Doppler echocardiographic variables of left ventricular (LV) function with those obtained invasively via cardiac catheterization under a range of hemodynamic conditions.

Animals—7 healthy anesthetized cats (1 to 3 years of age).

Procedure—Cats were anesthetized and instrumented to measure the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau []), LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), peak negative and positive rate of change of LV pressure, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output. Echocardiographic variables of diastolic function (isovolumic relaxation time [IVRT], early LV flow propagation velocity [Vp], transmitral and pulmonary venous flow velocity indices, and LV tissue Doppler imaging indices) were measured simultaneously over a range of hemodynamic states induced by treatments with esmolol, dobutamine, cilobradine, and volume loading. Correlation between invasive and noninvasive measures of LV filling was determined by univariate and multivariate regression analyses.

Results—Significant correlations were found between and IVRT, peak Vp, peak late transmitral flow velocity, and peak systolic pulmonary venous flow velocity. A significant correlation was found between LVEDP and early diastolic transmitral flow velocity (peak E) and the ratio of peak E to peak Vp, but not between LVEDP and peak Vp.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—IVRT and Vp can be used as noninvasive indices of LV relaxation; Vp was independent of preload and heart rate in this study. The E:Vp ratio may be useful as an indicator of LV filling pressure. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:93–103)