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Analgesic and systemic effects of ketamine, xylazine, and lidocaine after subarachnoid administration in goats

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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Medicine—Surgery and Anesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Avenida Filinto Müller, Campo Grande, CEP 79070-900, Brazil.
  • | 2 Present address is Núcleo de Ciências Veterinárias, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Caixa Postal 549, Campo Grande, CEP 79070-900, MS, Brazil.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Medicine—Surgery and Anesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Avenida Filinto Müller, Campo Grande, CEP 79070-900, Brazil.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Medicine—Surgery and Anesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Avenida Filinto Müller, Campo Grande, CEP 79070-900, Brazil.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, and lidocaine hydrochloride after subarachnoid administration in goats.

Animals—6 healthy goats.

Procedure—In each goat, ketamine (3 mg/kg), xylazine (0.1 mg/kg), lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg), and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were injected into the subarachnoid space between the last lumbar vertebra and first sacral vertebra (time 0). Analgesic, ataxic, sedative, cardiovascular, and respiratory effects and rectal temperature were evaluated before (baseline) and 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after administration and at 30-minute intervals thereafter as needed.

Results—Administration of anesthetics induced varying degrees of analgesia. Onset of the analgesic effect was more delayed for xylazine (mean ± SD, 9.5 ± 2.6 minutes) than for ketamine (6.7 ± 2.6 minutes) or lidocaine (3.5 ± 1.2 minutes). Duration of analgesia induced by xylazine (88.3 ± 15 minutes) was twice as long as the duration of analgesia induced by ketamine (48.8 ± 13.5 minutes) but similar to that induced by lidocaine (66.5 ± 31 minutes). Xylazine induced bradycardia, whereas ketamine caused a nonsignificant increase in heart rate. Xylazine induced a reduction in arterial pressure, whereas ketamine or lidocaine did not affect arterial pressure.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Subarachnoid administration of xylazine in goats resulted in longer duration of analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flanks, and caudodorsal rib areas than administration of ketamine or lidocaine. However, xylazine caused bradycardia and respiratory depression. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the analgesia would be sufficient to allow clinicians to perform surgical procedures. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:51–56)

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, and lidocaine hydrochloride after subarachnoid administration in goats.

Animals—6 healthy goats.

Procedure—In each goat, ketamine (3 mg/kg), xylazine (0.1 mg/kg), lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg), and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were injected into the subarachnoid space between the last lumbar vertebra and first sacral vertebra (time 0). Analgesic, ataxic, sedative, cardiovascular, and respiratory effects and rectal temperature were evaluated before (baseline) and 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after administration and at 30-minute intervals thereafter as needed.

Results—Administration of anesthetics induced varying degrees of analgesia. Onset of the analgesic effect was more delayed for xylazine (mean ± SD, 9.5 ± 2.6 minutes) than for ketamine (6.7 ± 2.6 minutes) or lidocaine (3.5 ± 1.2 minutes). Duration of analgesia induced by xylazine (88.3 ± 15 minutes) was twice as long as the duration of analgesia induced by ketamine (48.8 ± 13.5 minutes) but similar to that induced by lidocaine (66.5 ± 31 minutes). Xylazine induced bradycardia, whereas ketamine caused a nonsignificant increase in heart rate. Xylazine induced a reduction in arterial pressure, whereas ketamine or lidocaine did not affect arterial pressure.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Subarachnoid administration of xylazine in goats resulted in longer duration of analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flanks, and caudodorsal rib areas than administration of ketamine or lidocaine. However, xylazine caused bradycardia and respiratory depression. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the analgesia would be sufficient to allow clinicians to perform surgical procedures. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:51–56)