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Effects of the calcium channel antagonist amlodipine in cats with surgically induced hypertensive renal insufficiency

Sheerin MathurDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605.

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Harriet SymeDepartment of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK NW1 0TU.

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Cathy A. BrownDepartment of Athens Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605.

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Jonathan ElliotDepartment of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK NW1 0TU.

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Phillip A. MooreDepartment of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605.

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Melvin A. NewellDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605.

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John S. MundayDepartment of Athens Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605.

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Leslie M. CartierDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605.

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Suzanne E. SheldonDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605.

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Scott A. BrownDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether amlodipine besylate decreases systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) and reduces the prevalence of complications in cats with induced hypertensive renal insufficiency.

Animals—20 cats with partial nephrectomy.

Procedure—Following reduction in renal mass, 10 cats were administered 0.25 mg of amlodipine/kg, PO, q 24 h (group A). Ten cats served as a control group (group C). Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean BP (MBP), physical activity, and pulse rate were measured continuously for 36 days by use of radiotelemetric devices.

Results—Compared with values for clinically normal cats, SBP, DBP, and MBP were significantly increased in cats of group C. Cats in group A had significant reductions in SBP, DBP, and MBP, compared with values for cats in group C. Albuminuria but not urine protein- to-creatinine ratio was significantly correlated ( R2 = 0.317) with SBP in hypertensive cats. Prevalence of ocular lesions attributable to systemic hypertension in group C (7 cats) was greater than that observed in group A (2). Two cats in group C were euthanatized on day 16 because of nuerologic complications attributed to systemic hypertension. One normotensive cat in group A was euthanatized because of purulent enteritis of unknown cause on day 27.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Amlodipine had an antihypertensive effect in cats with coexistent systemic hypertension and renal insufficiency. Its use may improve the prognosis for cats with systemic hypertension by decreasing the risk of ocular injury or neurologic complications induced by high BP. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:833–839)

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether amlodipine besylate decreases systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) and reduces the prevalence of complications in cats with induced hypertensive renal insufficiency.

Animals—20 cats with partial nephrectomy.

Procedure—Following reduction in renal mass, 10 cats were administered 0.25 mg of amlodipine/kg, PO, q 24 h (group A). Ten cats served as a control group (group C). Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean BP (MBP), physical activity, and pulse rate were measured continuously for 36 days by use of radiotelemetric devices.

Results—Compared with values for clinically normal cats, SBP, DBP, and MBP were significantly increased in cats of group C. Cats in group A had significant reductions in SBP, DBP, and MBP, compared with values for cats in group C. Albuminuria but not urine protein- to-creatinine ratio was significantly correlated ( R2 = 0.317) with SBP in hypertensive cats. Prevalence of ocular lesions attributable to systemic hypertension in group C (7 cats) was greater than that observed in group A (2). Two cats in group C were euthanatized on day 16 because of nuerologic complications attributed to systemic hypertension. One normotensive cat in group A was euthanatized because of purulent enteritis of unknown cause on day 27.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Amlodipine had an antihypertensive effect in cats with coexistent systemic hypertension and renal insufficiency. Its use may improve the prognosis for cats with systemic hypertension by decreasing the risk of ocular injury or neurologic complications induced by high BP. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:833–839)