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Effects of DNA dose, route of vaccination, and coadministration of porcine interleukin-6 DNA on results of DNA vaccination against influenza virus infection in pigs

Diane L. LarsenDepartment of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
Merial Ltd, 3239 Satellite Blvd, Building 500, Duluth, GA 30096-4640.
Present address is Merial Ltd, 3239 Satellite Blvd, Building 500, Duluth, GA 30096-4640.

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Christopher W. OlsenDepartment of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

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Abstract

Objective—To examine the effects of DNA dose, site of vaccination, and coadministration of a cytokine DNA adjuvant on efficacy of H1-subtype swine influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) DNA vaccination of pigs.

Animals—24 eight-week-old mixed-breed pigs.

Procedure—2 doses of DNA were administered 27 days apart by use of a particle-mediated delivery system (gene gun). Different doses of HA DNA and different sites of DNA administration (skin, tongue) were studied, as was coadministration of porcine interleukin-6 (pIL-6) DNA as an adjuvant. Concentrations of virus-specific serum and nasal mucosal antibodies were measured throughout the experiment, and protective immunity was assessed after intranasal challenge with homologous H1N1 swine influenza virus.

Results—Increasing the dose of HA DNA, but not coadministration of pIL-6 DNA, significantly enhanced virus-specific serum antibody responses. Pigs that received DNA on the ventral surface of the tongue stopped shedding virus 1 day sooner than pigs vaccinated in the skin of the ventral portion of the abdomen, but none of the vaccinated pigs developed detectable virus-specific antibodies in nasal secretions prior to challenge, nor were they protected from challenge exposure. Vaccinated pigs developed high virus-specific antibody concentrations after exposure to the challenge virus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Co-administration of pIL-6 DNA did not significantly enhance immune responses to HA DNA vaccination or protection from challenge exposure. However, HA DNA vaccination of pigs, with or without coadministration of pIL-6 DNA, induced strong priming of the humoral immune system. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:653–659)

Abstract

Objective—To examine the effects of DNA dose, site of vaccination, and coadministration of a cytokine DNA adjuvant on efficacy of H1-subtype swine influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) DNA vaccination of pigs.

Animals—24 eight-week-old mixed-breed pigs.

Procedure—2 doses of DNA were administered 27 days apart by use of a particle-mediated delivery system (gene gun). Different doses of HA DNA and different sites of DNA administration (skin, tongue) were studied, as was coadministration of porcine interleukin-6 (pIL-6) DNA as an adjuvant. Concentrations of virus-specific serum and nasal mucosal antibodies were measured throughout the experiment, and protective immunity was assessed after intranasal challenge with homologous H1N1 swine influenza virus.

Results—Increasing the dose of HA DNA, but not coadministration of pIL-6 DNA, significantly enhanced virus-specific serum antibody responses. Pigs that received DNA on the ventral surface of the tongue stopped shedding virus 1 day sooner than pigs vaccinated in the skin of the ventral portion of the abdomen, but none of the vaccinated pigs developed detectable virus-specific antibodies in nasal secretions prior to challenge, nor were they protected from challenge exposure. Vaccinated pigs developed high virus-specific antibody concentrations after exposure to the challenge virus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Co-administration of pIL-6 DNA did not significantly enhance immune responses to HA DNA vaccination or protection from challenge exposure. However, HA DNA vaccination of pigs, with or without coadministration of pIL-6 DNA, induced strong priming of the humoral immune system. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:653–659)