Advertisement

Pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in donkeys, mules, and horses

View More View Less
  • 1 Texas Veterinary Medical Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4474.
  • | 2 Texas Veterinary Medical Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4474.
  • | 3 Texas Veterinary Medical Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4474.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99163.

Abstract

Objective—To compare serum disposition of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim after IV administration to donkeys, mules, and horses.

Animals—5 donkeys, 5 mules, and 3 horses.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 5, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours after IV administration of sulfamethoxazole (12.5 mg/kg) and trimethoprim (2.5 mg/kg). Serum was analyzed in triplicate with high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim concentrations. Serum concentration-time curve for each animal was analyzed separately to estimate noncompartmental pharmacokinetic variables.

Results—Clearance of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in donkeys was significantly faster than in mules or horses. In donkeys, mean residence time (MRT) of sulfamethoxazole (2.5 hours) was less than half the MRT in mules (6.2 hours); MRT of trimethoprim in donkeys (0.8 hours) was half that in horses (1.5 hours). Volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) for sulfamethoxazole did not differ, but Vdss of trimethoprim was significantly greater in horses than mules or donkeys. Area under the curve for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was higher in mules than in horses or donkeys.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dosing intervals for IV administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in horses may not be appropriate for use in donkeys or mules. Donkeys eliminate the drugs rapidly, compared with horses. Ratios of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole optimum for antibacterial activity are maintained for only a short duration in horses, donkeys, and mules. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:349–353)

Abstract

Objective—To compare serum disposition of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim after IV administration to donkeys, mules, and horses.

Animals—5 donkeys, 5 mules, and 3 horses.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 5, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours after IV administration of sulfamethoxazole (12.5 mg/kg) and trimethoprim (2.5 mg/kg). Serum was analyzed in triplicate with high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim concentrations. Serum concentration-time curve for each animal was analyzed separately to estimate noncompartmental pharmacokinetic variables.

Results—Clearance of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in donkeys was significantly faster than in mules or horses. In donkeys, mean residence time (MRT) of sulfamethoxazole (2.5 hours) was less than half the MRT in mules (6.2 hours); MRT of trimethoprim in donkeys (0.8 hours) was half that in horses (1.5 hours). Volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) for sulfamethoxazole did not differ, but Vdss of trimethoprim was significantly greater in horses than mules or donkeys. Area under the curve for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was higher in mules than in horses or donkeys.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dosing intervals for IV administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in horses may not be appropriate for use in donkeys or mules. Donkeys eliminate the drugs rapidly, compared with horses. Ratios of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole optimum for antibacterial activity are maintained for only a short duration in horses, donkeys, and mules. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:349–353)