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Effect of immunosuppressive doses of cyclosporine on pancreatic beta cell function in pigs

Sophia K. DeanDiabetes Transplant Unit, Prince of Wales Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Hayley ScottDiabetes Transplant Unit, Prince of Wales Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Gregory W. KeoghDepartment of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Simon RobertsDiabetes Transplant Unit, Prince of Wales Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Bernard E. TuchDiabetes Transplant Unit, Prince of Wales Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate whether immunosuppressive doses of cyclosporine (CsA) have an adverse effect on the liver, kidney, and pancreatic beta cells of pigs.

Animals—8 juvenile 8-week-old Landrace X Large White crossbred pigs.

Procedure—CsA (100 to 140 mg/kg) was administered orally to euglycemic pigs to reach whole blood trough concentrations of approximately 1500 ng/mL. To determine pancreatic beta cell function, plasma Cpeptide and insulin concentrations were measured in response to IV administration of glucose, glucagon, arginine, and oral administration of glucose. Effects on liver and kidney were determined by monitoring serum measurements of liver function and serum creatinine concentrations, respectively.

Results—Plasma concentrations of C-peptide were significantly lower in euglycemic CsA-treated pigs, compared with control pigs, following IV administration of glucose, glucagon, arginine, and oral administration of glucose. Furthermore, the glucose clearance rate was decreased in euglycemic CsA-treated pigs, compared with control pigs. Serum creatinine concentrations and 4 of 7 serum measurements of liver function were not adversely affected by CsA administration. Serum concentrations of bilirubin and albumin were significantly increased, and serum alanine aminotransferase activity was significantly decreased in CsA-treated pigs, compared with control pigs. Histologic evaluation of liver and kidney sections revealed no pathologic findings in CsA-treated or control pigs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In our study, immunosuppressive doses of CsA caused an impairment of porcine pancreatic beta cell function, but did not have toxic effects on the kidney. However, on the basis of changes in serum bilirubin and albumin concentrations and alanine aminotransferase activity, subclinical toxic effects on the liver did occur when immunosuppressive doses of CsA were administered. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1501–1506)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate whether immunosuppressive doses of cyclosporine (CsA) have an adverse effect on the liver, kidney, and pancreatic beta cells of pigs.

Animals—8 juvenile 8-week-old Landrace X Large White crossbred pigs.

Procedure—CsA (100 to 140 mg/kg) was administered orally to euglycemic pigs to reach whole blood trough concentrations of approximately 1500 ng/mL. To determine pancreatic beta cell function, plasma Cpeptide and insulin concentrations were measured in response to IV administration of glucose, glucagon, arginine, and oral administration of glucose. Effects on liver and kidney were determined by monitoring serum measurements of liver function and serum creatinine concentrations, respectively.

Results—Plasma concentrations of C-peptide were significantly lower in euglycemic CsA-treated pigs, compared with control pigs, following IV administration of glucose, glucagon, arginine, and oral administration of glucose. Furthermore, the glucose clearance rate was decreased in euglycemic CsA-treated pigs, compared with control pigs. Serum creatinine concentrations and 4 of 7 serum measurements of liver function were not adversely affected by CsA administration. Serum concentrations of bilirubin and albumin were significantly increased, and serum alanine aminotransferase activity was significantly decreased in CsA-treated pigs, compared with control pigs. Histologic evaluation of liver and kidney sections revealed no pathologic findings in CsA-treated or control pigs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In our study, immunosuppressive doses of CsA caused an impairment of porcine pancreatic beta cell function, but did not have toxic effects on the kidney. However, on the basis of changes in serum bilirubin and albumin concentrations and alanine aminotransferase activity, subclinical toxic effects on the liver did occur when immunosuppressive doses of CsA were administered. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1501–1506)