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Effects of dexamethasone on emesis in cats sedated with xylazine hydrochloride

Chiu-Ming HoGraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Minchiuan E Rd, Taipei 114, Taiwan.
Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei-Veterans General Hospital, Shpai Rd, Taipei 112, Taiwan.

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Shung-Tai HoDepartment of Anesthesiology, National Defense Medical Center, Minchiuan E Rd, Taipei 114, Taiwan.

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Jhi-Joung WangDepartment of Anesthesiology, National Defense Medical Center, Minchiuan E Rd, Taipei 114, Taiwan.
Department of Anesthesiology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Junghua Rd, Tainan 710, Taiwan.

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Tak-Yu LeeDepartment of Anesthesiology, Taipei-Veterans General Hospital, Shpai Rd, Taipei 112, Taiwan.

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Chok-Yung ChaiInstitute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Yanjiouyuan Rd, Taipei 115, Taiwan.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine antiemetic efficacy of prophylactic administration of dexamethasone and its influence on sedation in cats sedated with xylazine hydrochloride.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats (3 males and 3 females).

Procedure—The prophylactic antiemetic effect of 4 doses of dexamethasone (1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg of body weight, IM) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.066 ml/kg, IM) administered 1 hour before administration of xylazine (0.66 mg/kg, IM) was evaluated. Cats initially were given saline treatment (day 0) and were given sequentially increasing doses of xylazine on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. After xylazine injection, all cats were observed for 30 minutes to allow assessment of frequency of emesis and time until onset of the first emetic episode. The influence of dexamethasone on xylazine-induced sedation in these cats also was evaluated.

Results—Prior treatment with 4 or 8 mg/kg of dexamethasone significantly reduced the frequency of emetic episodes and also significantly prolonged the time until onset of the first emetic episode after xylazine injection. Time until onset of the first emetic episode also was significantly prolonged for dexamethasone at a dose of 2 mg/kg. Time until onset of sedation after administration of xylazine was not altered by administration of dexamethasone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dexamethasone (4 or 8 mg/kg, IM) significantly decreased the frequency of emetic episodes induced by xylazine without compromising sedative effects in cats. Dexamethasone may be used prophylactically as an antiemetic in cats treated with xylazine. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1218–1221)

Abstract

Objective—To determine antiemetic efficacy of prophylactic administration of dexamethasone and its influence on sedation in cats sedated with xylazine hydrochloride.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats (3 males and 3 females).

Procedure—The prophylactic antiemetic effect of 4 doses of dexamethasone (1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg of body weight, IM) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.066 ml/kg, IM) administered 1 hour before administration of xylazine (0.66 mg/kg, IM) was evaluated. Cats initially were given saline treatment (day 0) and were given sequentially increasing doses of xylazine on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. After xylazine injection, all cats were observed for 30 minutes to allow assessment of frequency of emesis and time until onset of the first emetic episode. The influence of dexamethasone on xylazine-induced sedation in these cats also was evaluated.

Results—Prior treatment with 4 or 8 mg/kg of dexamethasone significantly reduced the frequency of emetic episodes and also significantly prolonged the time until onset of the first emetic episode after xylazine injection. Time until onset of the first emetic episode also was significantly prolonged for dexamethasone at a dose of 2 mg/kg. Time until onset of sedation after administration of xylazine was not altered by administration of dexamethasone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dexamethasone (4 or 8 mg/kg, IM) significantly decreased the frequency of emetic episodes induced by xylazine without compromising sedative effects in cats. Dexamethasone may be used prophylactically as an antiemetic in cats treated with xylazine. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1218–1221)