Biomechanical analysis of suture anchors and suture materials used for toggle pin stabilization of hip joint luxation in dogs

Wendy I. Baltzer Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Present address is Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4474.

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Kurt S. Schulz Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Susan M. Stover JD Wheat Veterinary Orthopedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Ken T. Taylor JD Wheat Veterinary Orthopedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Philip H. Kass Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Abstract

Objective—To compare in vitro mechanical properties of toggle pins and toggle rods used as suture anchors and of 3 suture materials (50-lb monofilament polybutester, No. 5 braided polyester, and 5-mm woven polyester) commonly used as prosthetic ligaments in the repair of hip joint luxation in dogs.

Sample Population—Femoropelvic specimens from the cadavers of 18 dogs.

Procedure—Suture anchors were compared by use of pullout tests. Suture materials were compared by use of monotonic and cyclic tensile tests; cyclic tensile tests were performed with the suture placed over the edge of an aluminum bar to simulate the edge of the femoral bone tunnel. In vitro mechanical properties of the ligament of the femoral head were determined by use of monotonic tensile tests, using boneligament-bone cadaveric specimens. The in vitro mechanical properties of the acetabulum-ligamentfemur complex and of this complex following rupture of the ligament and stabilization with a toggle rod and 5-mm woven polyester were determined by use of compression tests that simulated weight-bearing.

Results—Mechanical properties of the toggle rod were not significantly different from those of the toggle pin. Woven polyester had the longest fatigue life in cyclic testing. Hip joints stabilized with a toggle rod and woven polyester had less than half the strength in vitro of intact joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a toggle rod or toggle pin can be used for stabilization of hip joint luxations in dogs. Of the materials tested, braided polyester had the best in vitro mechanical properties. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62: 721–728)

Abstract

Objective—To compare in vitro mechanical properties of toggle pins and toggle rods used as suture anchors and of 3 suture materials (50-lb monofilament polybutester, No. 5 braided polyester, and 5-mm woven polyester) commonly used as prosthetic ligaments in the repair of hip joint luxation in dogs.

Sample Population—Femoropelvic specimens from the cadavers of 18 dogs.

Procedure—Suture anchors were compared by use of pullout tests. Suture materials were compared by use of monotonic and cyclic tensile tests; cyclic tensile tests were performed with the suture placed over the edge of an aluminum bar to simulate the edge of the femoral bone tunnel. In vitro mechanical properties of the ligament of the femoral head were determined by use of monotonic tensile tests, using boneligament-bone cadaveric specimens. The in vitro mechanical properties of the acetabulum-ligamentfemur complex and of this complex following rupture of the ligament and stabilization with a toggle rod and 5-mm woven polyester were determined by use of compression tests that simulated weight-bearing.

Results—Mechanical properties of the toggle rod were not significantly different from those of the toggle pin. Woven polyester had the longest fatigue life in cyclic testing. Hip joints stabilized with a toggle rod and woven polyester had less than half the strength in vitro of intact joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a toggle rod or toggle pin can be used for stabilization of hip joint luxations in dogs. Of the materials tested, braided polyester had the best in vitro mechanical properties. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62: 721–728)

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