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Adsorption of colostral antibodies against classical swine fever, persistence of maternal antibodies, and effect on response to vaccination in baby pigs

Joris VandeputteRegulatory Affairs International, Merial SAS, 29 Tony Garnier Ave, 69007 Lyon, France

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Henry L. TooFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang Selangor DE, Malaysia

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Fook K. NgAgri-food Veterinary Authority of Singapore, Central Veterinary Laboratory, 60 Sengkang East Way, Singapore 548596

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Cindy ChenAnimal Health Division, Rodia Malaysia, SDN BHD Lot 8 Jalan 19/1, 46710 Petaling Jaya, Malaysia

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Kim K. ChaiProduct Development Center, Merial Asia Ltd, Faraday, Science Park Dr, Singapore Science Park 118238, Singapore

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Guo A. LiaoProduct Development Center, Merial Asia Ltd, Faraday, Science Park Dr, Singapore Science Park 118238, Singapore

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Abstract

Objective—To determine kinetics of antibody absorption, persistence of antibody concentrations, and influence of titers on vaccination of baby pigs with a vaccine against classical swine fever (CSF).

Animals—15 sows and their litters.

Procedure—Farrowings were supervised. Initial time of suckling was recorded. In the first experiment, blood samples were collected at farrowing, 2 and 4 hours after suckling, and hourly until 10 hours after initial suckling. Samples were assayed for CSF antibodies, using a serum neutralizing (SN) test. A second experiment included 33 baby pigs vaccinated as follows: 10 prior to ingestion of colostrum, 18 between 1 and 4 hours after ingestion of colostrum, and 5 at 12 hours after ingestion of colostrum. Fourteen pigs were vaccinated when 7 weeks old, and 15 pigs were not vaccinated. At 10 weeks of age, pigs were challenge- exposed with virulent CSF virus. Blood samples were collected and assayed for CSF antibodies and p125 antigen and p125 antibodies.

Results—CSF antibodies were detected in pigs beginning 2 hours after suckling. Colostral antibodies persisted for > 7 weeks (half-life, 7.9 days). Vaccination of pigs before suckling provided effective protection from severe disease after challenge-exposure. However, vaccination of neonates with antibody titers was not effective, because 19 of 23 (82%) pigs succumbed after challenge-exposure. All pigs vaccinated when 7 weeks old resisted challenge-exposure, whereas all unvaccinated control pigs succumbed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination before ingestion of colostrum conferred good protection against CSF in baby pigs. Vaccination of 7-weekold pigs that had decreasing concentrations of passively acquired antibodies was efficacious. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1805–1811)

Abstract

Objective—To determine kinetics of antibody absorption, persistence of antibody concentrations, and influence of titers on vaccination of baby pigs with a vaccine against classical swine fever (CSF).

Animals—15 sows and their litters.

Procedure—Farrowings were supervised. Initial time of suckling was recorded. In the first experiment, blood samples were collected at farrowing, 2 and 4 hours after suckling, and hourly until 10 hours after initial suckling. Samples were assayed for CSF antibodies, using a serum neutralizing (SN) test. A second experiment included 33 baby pigs vaccinated as follows: 10 prior to ingestion of colostrum, 18 between 1 and 4 hours after ingestion of colostrum, and 5 at 12 hours after ingestion of colostrum. Fourteen pigs were vaccinated when 7 weeks old, and 15 pigs were not vaccinated. At 10 weeks of age, pigs were challenge- exposed with virulent CSF virus. Blood samples were collected and assayed for CSF antibodies and p125 antigen and p125 antibodies.

Results—CSF antibodies were detected in pigs beginning 2 hours after suckling. Colostral antibodies persisted for > 7 weeks (half-life, 7.9 days). Vaccination of pigs before suckling provided effective protection from severe disease after challenge-exposure. However, vaccination of neonates with antibody titers was not effective, because 19 of 23 (82%) pigs succumbed after challenge-exposure. All pigs vaccinated when 7 weeks old resisted challenge-exposure, whereas all unvaccinated control pigs succumbed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination before ingestion of colostrum conferred good protection against CSF in baby pigs. Vaccination of 7-weekold pigs that had decreasing concentrations of passively acquired antibodies was efficacious. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1805–1811)