In vitro effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in whole blood of horses, dogs, and cats

Christine Brideau Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, Kirkland, Quebec, Canada, H9R 4P8.

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Carlo Van Staden Department of Pharmacology, Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, Kirkland, Quebec, Canada, H9R 4P8.
Present address is Amgen Inc, One Amgen Center Dr, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320.

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Chi Chung Chan Department of Pharmacology, Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, Kirkland, Quebec, Canada, H9R 4P8.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine potency and selectivity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) specific inhibitors in whole blood from horses, dogs, and cats.

Sample Population—Blood samples from 30 healthy horses, 48 healthy dogs, and 9 healthy cats.

Procedure—Activities of COX-1 and COX-2 were determined by measuring coagulation-induced thromboxane B2 and lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 concentrations, respectively, in whole blood with and without the addition of various concentrations of phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, meloxicam, carprofen, 5-bromo-2[4-fluorophenyl]-3-[4- methylsulfonylphenyl]-thiophene (DuP 697), 5,5- dimethyl-3-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-(4-methylsulphonyl) phenyl-2(5H)-furan one (DFU), 3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)- 4-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-2-(5H)-furanone (MF-tricyclic), and celecoxib. Potency of each test compound was determined by calculating the concentration that resulted in inhibition of 50% of COX activity (IC50). Selectivity was determined by calculating the ratio of IC50 for COX-1 to IC50 for COX-2 (COX-1/COX-2 ratio).

Results—The novel compound DFU was the most selective COX-2 inhibitor in equine, canine, and feline blood; COX-1/COX-2 ratios were 77.5, 74, and 69, respectively. Carprofen was the weakest inhibitor of COX-2, compared with the other COX-2 selective inhibitors, and did not inhibit COX-2 activity in equine blood. In contrast, NSAID such as phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine were more potent inhibitors of COX-1 than COX-2 in canine and equine blood.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The novel COX-2 inhibitor DFU was more potent and selective in canine, equine, and feline blood, compared with phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, and carprofen. Compounds that specifically inhibit COX-2 may result in a lower incidence of adverse effects, compared with NSAID, when administered at therapeutic dosages to horses, dogs, and cats. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1755–1760)

Abstract

Objective—To determine potency and selectivity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) specific inhibitors in whole blood from horses, dogs, and cats.

Sample Population—Blood samples from 30 healthy horses, 48 healthy dogs, and 9 healthy cats.

Procedure—Activities of COX-1 and COX-2 were determined by measuring coagulation-induced thromboxane B2 and lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 concentrations, respectively, in whole blood with and without the addition of various concentrations of phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, meloxicam, carprofen, 5-bromo-2[4-fluorophenyl]-3-[4- methylsulfonylphenyl]-thiophene (DuP 697), 5,5- dimethyl-3-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-(4-methylsulphonyl) phenyl-2(5H)-furan one (DFU), 3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)- 4-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-2-(5H)-furanone (MF-tricyclic), and celecoxib. Potency of each test compound was determined by calculating the concentration that resulted in inhibition of 50% of COX activity (IC50). Selectivity was determined by calculating the ratio of IC50 for COX-1 to IC50 for COX-2 (COX-1/COX-2 ratio).

Results—The novel compound DFU was the most selective COX-2 inhibitor in equine, canine, and feline blood; COX-1/COX-2 ratios were 77.5, 74, and 69, respectively. Carprofen was the weakest inhibitor of COX-2, compared with the other COX-2 selective inhibitors, and did not inhibit COX-2 activity in equine blood. In contrast, NSAID such as phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine were more potent inhibitors of COX-1 than COX-2 in canine and equine blood.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The novel COX-2 inhibitor DFU was more potent and selective in canine, equine, and feline blood, compared with phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, and carprofen. Compounds that specifically inhibit COX-2 may result in a lower incidence of adverse effects, compared with NSAID, when administered at therapeutic dosages to horses, dogs, and cats. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1755–1760)

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