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D-dimer concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation

Tracy Stokol BVSc, PhD1, Marjory B. Brooks DVM2, Hollis N. Erb DVM, PhD3, and Glenna E. Mauldin DVM, MS4,5
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  • 1 Departments of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 2 Departments of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 3 Departments of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 4 Donaldson-Atwood Cancer Clinic of the Elmer and Mamdouha Bobst Hospital of the Animal Medical Center, New York, NY 10021.
  • | 5 present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

Abstract

Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of assays of D-dimer concentrations in dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and healthy dogs and to compare these results with those of serum and plasma fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) assays.

Animals—20 dogs with DIC and 30 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Semi-quantitative and quantitative D-dimer concentrations were determined by use of latex-agglutination and immunoturbidometry, respectively. Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products were measured by use of latex-agglutination. A reference range for the immunoturbidometric D-dimer concentration assay was established; sensitivity and specificity of the assay were determined at 2 cutoff concentrations (0.30 µg/ml and 0.39 µg/ml).

Results—Reference range for the immunoturbidometric D-dimer concentration assay was 0.08 to 0.39 µg/ml; median concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with DIC than in healthy dogs. Latexagglutination D-dimer and serum and plasma FDP assays had similar sensitivity (85 to 100%) and specificity (90 to 100%); the immunoturbidometric assay had lower specificity (77%) at the 0.30 µg/ml cutoff and lower sensitivity (65%) at the 0.39 µg/ml cutoff. Sensitivity or specificity of the latex-agglutination D-dimer assay was not significantly improved when interpreted in series or parallel with FDP assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement of D-dimer concentrations by latex-agglutination appears to be a sensitive and specific ancillary test for DIC in dogs. Specificity of D-dimer concentrations in dogs with systemic disease other than DIC has not been determined, therefore FDP and D-dimer assays should be performed concurrently as supportive tests for the diagnosis of DIC in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:393–398)

Abstract

Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of assays of D-dimer concentrations in dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and healthy dogs and to compare these results with those of serum and plasma fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) assays.

Animals—20 dogs with DIC and 30 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Semi-quantitative and quantitative D-dimer concentrations were determined by use of latex-agglutination and immunoturbidometry, respectively. Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products were measured by use of latex-agglutination. A reference range for the immunoturbidometric D-dimer concentration assay was established; sensitivity and specificity of the assay were determined at 2 cutoff concentrations (0.30 µg/ml and 0.39 µg/ml).

Results—Reference range for the immunoturbidometric D-dimer concentration assay was 0.08 to 0.39 µg/ml; median concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with DIC than in healthy dogs. Latexagglutination D-dimer and serum and plasma FDP assays had similar sensitivity (85 to 100%) and specificity (90 to 100%); the immunoturbidometric assay had lower specificity (77%) at the 0.30 µg/ml cutoff and lower sensitivity (65%) at the 0.39 µg/ml cutoff. Sensitivity or specificity of the latex-agglutination D-dimer assay was not significantly improved when interpreted in series or parallel with FDP assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement of D-dimer concentrations by latex-agglutination appears to be a sensitive and specific ancillary test for DIC in dogs. Specificity of D-dimer concentrations in dogs with systemic disease other than DIC has not been determined, therefore FDP and D-dimer assays should be performed concurrently as supportive tests for the diagnosis of DIC in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:393–398)