Evaluation of local and systemic immune responses induced by intramuscular injection of a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin to pigs

Eileen L. Thacker Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Brad J. Thacker Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Michael Kuhn Pfizer Animal Health, 235 E 42nd St, New York, NY 10017.

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Peggy A. Hawkins Pfizer Animal Health, 235 E 42nd St, New York, NY 10017.

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W. Ray Waters National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Ave, Ames, IA 50010.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate immune responses induced by administration of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin to pigs.

Animals—60 healthy 7- to 10-day-old cross-bred boars.

Procedure—Pigs were assigned to 1 of 4 pig groups (15 pigs/group): vaccinated, challenged; vaccinated, nonchallenged; nonvaccinated, challenged; nonvaccinated, nonchallenged. Vaccinated pigs received IM injections of a mycoplasma bacterin on days 0 and 14, whereas nonvaccinated pigs received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Pigs in the challenged groups were inoculated intratracheally with M hyopneumoniae on day 42. Pigs were euthanatized and necropsied 41, 44, 48, and 70 days after the first vaccination, and proportion of lung surface with pneumonic lesions was determined. Percentage of lymphocyte subpopulations and number of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreting lymphocytes in blood and tissues, cytokine and antibody concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and serum antibody concentrations were determined.

Results—Vaccination against and infection with M hyopneumoniae induced a local mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract of pigs. Proportion of lung surface with pneumonic lesions in vaccinated challenged pigs was reduced on day 70, compared with nonvaccinated challenged pigs. Vaccination stimulated the production of M hyopneumoniae-specific IFN-γ secreting blood lymphocytes. Tumor necrosis factor-α concentration in BAL fluid on day 70 was increased in nonvaccinated challenged pigs, compared with vaccinated challenged pigs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination against M hyopneumoniae induced local, mucosal, humoral, and cellular immune responses. Moreover, vaccination reduced the severity of lung lesions in challenged pigs, suggesting that mucosal antibodies, mediation of the inflammatory response, and cellmediated immune responses are important for control of mycoplasmal pneumonia in pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1384–1389)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate immune responses induced by administration of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin to pigs.

Animals—60 healthy 7- to 10-day-old cross-bred boars.

Procedure—Pigs were assigned to 1 of 4 pig groups (15 pigs/group): vaccinated, challenged; vaccinated, nonchallenged; nonvaccinated, challenged; nonvaccinated, nonchallenged. Vaccinated pigs received IM injections of a mycoplasma bacterin on days 0 and 14, whereas nonvaccinated pigs received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Pigs in the challenged groups were inoculated intratracheally with M hyopneumoniae on day 42. Pigs were euthanatized and necropsied 41, 44, 48, and 70 days after the first vaccination, and proportion of lung surface with pneumonic lesions was determined. Percentage of lymphocyte subpopulations and number of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreting lymphocytes in blood and tissues, cytokine and antibody concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and serum antibody concentrations were determined.

Results—Vaccination against and infection with M hyopneumoniae induced a local mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract of pigs. Proportion of lung surface with pneumonic lesions in vaccinated challenged pigs was reduced on day 70, compared with nonvaccinated challenged pigs. Vaccination stimulated the production of M hyopneumoniae-specific IFN-γ secreting blood lymphocytes. Tumor necrosis factor-α concentration in BAL fluid on day 70 was increased in nonvaccinated challenged pigs, compared with vaccinated challenged pigs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination against M hyopneumoniae induced local, mucosal, humoral, and cellular immune responses. Moreover, vaccination reduced the severity of lung lesions in challenged pigs, suggesting that mucosal antibodies, mediation of the inflammatory response, and cellmediated immune responses are important for control of mycoplasmal pneumonia in pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1384–1389)

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