Effect of a magnesium-deficient diet on serum and urine magnesium concentrations in healthy cats

Carol R. Norris From the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (Norris), the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology (Christopher), Molecular Biosciences (Howard), and Medicine and Epidemiology (Nelson), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Mary M. Christopher From the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (Norris), the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology (Christopher), Molecular Biosciences (Howard), and Medicine and Epidemiology (Nelson), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Kimberly A. Howard From the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (Norris), the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology (Christopher), Molecular Biosciences (Howard), and Medicine and Epidemiology (Nelson), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Richard W. Nelson From the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (Norris), the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology (Christopher), Molecular Biosciences (Howard), and Medicine and Epidemiology (Nelson), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy of using serum total and ionized magnesium (Mg) concentrations and urine Mg concentrations to identify Mg deficiency in cats.

Animals

6 healthy castrated male cats.

Procedure

A Mg-replete diet was fed for 37 days, followed by a Mg-deficient diet for 37 days. On days 1, 3, and 7 of the last week of each diet, serum ionized and total Mg concentrations were determined; in addition, urine Mg concentration was determined each day of the last week. Serum total and ionized Mg concentrations were compared with urine Mg concentration, amount of Mg excreted during 24 hours (24-hour urine Mg excretion), ratio of urine Mg concentration to urine creatinine concentration (Umg:Ucr), and urinary fractional excretion of Mg (FEmg) to determine which variable best predicted Mg status.

Results

Cats fed Mg-deficient diets had significantly lower serum total and ionized Mg concentrations and 24-hour urine Mg excretion values, compared with cats fed Mg-replete diets. Serum total Mg concentration was the best predictor of Mg status. Twenty-four-hour urine Mg excretion was a repeatable, reliable measurement and had the best correlation with serum total Mg concentration. Serum total Mg concentration also correlated with urine Mg concentration, Umg:Ucr, and FEmg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Serum total and ionized Mg concentrations can be used to identify cats with dietary-induced Mg deficiencies. Twenty-four-hour urine Mg excretion and urine Mg concentration correlated best with serum total Mg concentration and, therefore, may be the most useful urine variables for identifying Mg deficiency. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1159–1163)

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy of using serum total and ionized magnesium (Mg) concentrations and urine Mg concentrations to identify Mg deficiency in cats.

Animals

6 healthy castrated male cats.

Procedure

A Mg-replete diet was fed for 37 days, followed by a Mg-deficient diet for 37 days. On days 1, 3, and 7 of the last week of each diet, serum ionized and total Mg concentrations were determined; in addition, urine Mg concentration was determined each day of the last week. Serum total and ionized Mg concentrations were compared with urine Mg concentration, amount of Mg excreted during 24 hours (24-hour urine Mg excretion), ratio of urine Mg concentration to urine creatinine concentration (Umg:Ucr), and urinary fractional excretion of Mg (FEmg) to determine which variable best predicted Mg status.

Results

Cats fed Mg-deficient diets had significantly lower serum total and ionized Mg concentrations and 24-hour urine Mg excretion values, compared with cats fed Mg-replete diets. Serum total Mg concentration was the best predictor of Mg status. Twenty-four-hour urine Mg excretion was a repeatable, reliable measurement and had the best correlation with serum total Mg concentration. Serum total Mg concentration also correlated with urine Mg concentration, Umg:Ucr, and FEmg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Serum total and ionized Mg concentrations can be used to identify cats with dietary-induced Mg deficiencies. Twenty-four-hour urine Mg excretion and urine Mg concentration correlated best with serum total Mg concentration and, therefore, may be the most useful urine variables for identifying Mg deficiency. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1159–1163)

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