Sequence of cardiovascular changes leading to pulmonary edema in swine fed culture material containing fumonisin

Geoffrey W. Smith From the Departments of Veterinary Pathobiology (Smith, Constable, Haschek), Biosciences (Tumbleson), and Clinical Medicine (Smith, Constable), University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802; and the Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (Rottinghaus).

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 DVM, MS
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Peter D. Constable From the Departments of Veterinary Pathobiology (Smith, Constable, Haschek), Biosciences (Tumbleson), and Clinical Medicine (Smith, Constable), University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802; and the Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (Rottinghaus).

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Mike E. Tumbleson From the Departments of Veterinary Pathobiology (Smith, Constable, Haschek), Biosciences (Tumbleson), and Clinical Medicine (Smith, Constable), University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802; and the Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (Rottinghaus).

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George E. Rottinghaus From the Departments of Veterinary Pathobiology (Smith, Constable, Haschek), Biosciences (Tumbleson), and Clinical Medicine (Smith, Constable), University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802; and the Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (Rottinghaus).

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Wanda M. Haschek From the Departments of Veterinary Pathobiology (Smith, Constable, Haschek), Biosciences (Tumbleson), and Clinical Medicine (Smith, Constable), University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802; and the Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (Rottinghaus).

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Abstract

Objectives

To determine the sequence of cardiovascular and blood gas changes induced by ingestion of fumonisin-containing culture material in swine and to examine the temporal relationship of these changes to plasma sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations.

Animals

12 healthy castrated pigs (38 to 50 kg).

Procedure

Pigs were instrumented to permit cardiovascular monitoring and collection of blood samples. Baseline values were obtained, and pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Control pigs (n = 6) were fed a standard grower diet, whereas culture material that contained 20 mg of fumonisin B1/kg of body weight was added to the feed of treated pigs (n = 6) each day. Hemodynamic data, results of arterial and mixed venous blood gas analyses, and plasma sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations were recorded every 12 hours until treated pigs were euthanatized because of impending death from pulmonary edema.

Results

Sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations were increased in plasma of treated pigs within 24 hours of initial fumonisin exposure and continued to increase dramatically until euthanasia. Fumonisin-treated pigs had increased respiratory rate, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary artery wedge pressure, along with decreased heart rate and cardiac output in the 12-hour period before euthanasia. Fumonisin-treated pigs also had systemic arterial hypotension, arterial and mixed venous hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis, decreased oxygen delivery, and increased oxygen consumption immediately before euthanasia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Fumonisin-induced pulmonary edema in swine is probably caused by acute left-sided heart failure. Onset of hemodynamic changes was associated with plasma sphinganine concentration ≥ 2.2 μM/L and plasma sphingosine concentration ≥ 1 µM/L (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1292–1300)

Abstract

Objectives

To determine the sequence of cardiovascular and blood gas changes induced by ingestion of fumonisin-containing culture material in swine and to examine the temporal relationship of these changes to plasma sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations.

Animals

12 healthy castrated pigs (38 to 50 kg).

Procedure

Pigs were instrumented to permit cardiovascular monitoring and collection of blood samples. Baseline values were obtained, and pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Control pigs (n = 6) were fed a standard grower diet, whereas culture material that contained 20 mg of fumonisin B1/kg of body weight was added to the feed of treated pigs (n = 6) each day. Hemodynamic data, results of arterial and mixed venous blood gas analyses, and plasma sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations were recorded every 12 hours until treated pigs were euthanatized because of impending death from pulmonary edema.

Results

Sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations were increased in plasma of treated pigs within 24 hours of initial fumonisin exposure and continued to increase dramatically until euthanasia. Fumonisin-treated pigs had increased respiratory rate, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary artery wedge pressure, along with decreased heart rate and cardiac output in the 12-hour period before euthanasia. Fumonisin-treated pigs also had systemic arterial hypotension, arterial and mixed venous hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis, decreased oxygen delivery, and increased oxygen consumption immediately before euthanasia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Fumonisin-induced pulmonary edema in swine is probably caused by acute left-sided heart failure. Onset of hemodynamic changes was associated with plasma sphinganine concentration ≥ 2.2 μM/L and plasma sphingosine concentration ≥ 1 µM/L (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1292–1300)

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