Isolation of bovine respiratory coronaviruses from feedlot cattle and comparison of their biological and antigenic properties with bovine enteric coronaviruses

Mustafa Hasoksuz From the Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 44691-4096.

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Sarah L. Lathrop From the Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 44691-4096.

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Kathy L. Gadfield From the Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 44691-4096.

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Linda J. Saif From the Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 44691-4096.

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Abstract

Objective

To isolate bovine coronaviruses from the respiratory tracts of feedlot cattle and compare antigenic and biological properties of these strains with bovine enteric coronaviruses.

Animals

5- to 8-month-old mixed-breed cattle at 4 feedlots.

Procedure

Samples were obtained from the nasal passages for testing. The 13 samples with the highest magnitude of positive values for bovine coronavirus (BCV) were cultured. Ten strains of bovine respiratory coronavirus (BRCV) were adapted successfully to serial passage. After observation of cytopathic effects (CPE) and confirmation of BRCV by immune electron microscopy and immunofluorescence testing, cell culture-adapted strains were cloned by limiting dilution. These isolates then were compared with a panel of bovine enteric coronaviruses (BECV), using hemagglutination (HA), receptor-destroying enzyme activity (RDE), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and virus neutralization (VN) assays. Antigenic relatedness values then were calculated.

Results

The BRCV were detected in 105 of 488 (21.5%) of the cattle tested. Of 13 strains tested, 10 were isolated in cell culture. Six of the BRCV strains were similar to 2 strains obtained from neonatal calves with diarrhea and 2 strains from adult cattle with winter dysentery. The other 4 BRCV isolates had high RDE activity against mouse erythrocytes but differed from other strains of BECV. Nine of 10 BRCV isolates had properties similar to the 2 BECV subtypes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The BRCV can be isolated from nasal passages of cattle entering feedlots. Most BRCV were similar to BECV strains, although a few had unique properties. Vaccines developed to protect against enteric strains also may protect against respiratory tract strains. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1227–1233)

Abstract

Objective

To isolate bovine coronaviruses from the respiratory tracts of feedlot cattle and compare antigenic and biological properties of these strains with bovine enteric coronaviruses.

Animals

5- to 8-month-old mixed-breed cattle at 4 feedlots.

Procedure

Samples were obtained from the nasal passages for testing. The 13 samples with the highest magnitude of positive values for bovine coronavirus (BCV) were cultured. Ten strains of bovine respiratory coronavirus (BRCV) were adapted successfully to serial passage. After observation of cytopathic effects (CPE) and confirmation of BRCV by immune electron microscopy and immunofluorescence testing, cell culture-adapted strains were cloned by limiting dilution. These isolates then were compared with a panel of bovine enteric coronaviruses (BECV), using hemagglutination (HA), receptor-destroying enzyme activity (RDE), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and virus neutralization (VN) assays. Antigenic relatedness values then were calculated.

Results

The BRCV were detected in 105 of 488 (21.5%) of the cattle tested. Of 13 strains tested, 10 were isolated in cell culture. Six of the BRCV strains were similar to 2 strains obtained from neonatal calves with diarrhea and 2 strains from adult cattle with winter dysentery. The other 4 BRCV isolates had high RDE activity against mouse erythrocytes but differed from other strains of BECV. Nine of 10 BRCV isolates had properties similar to the 2 BECV subtypes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The BRCV can be isolated from nasal passages of cattle entering feedlots. Most BRCV were similar to BECV strains, although a few had unique properties. Vaccines developed to protect against enteric strains also may protect against respiratory tract strains. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1227–1233)

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