Effects of medetomidine on serum osmolality; urine volume, osmolality and pH; free water clearance; and fractional clearance of sodium, chloride, potassium, and glucose in dogs

Shelley Burton From the Departments of Pathology and Microbiology (Burton, Mackenzie) and Companion Animals (Lemke, Ihle), Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Ave, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada C1A 4P3.

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Kip A. Lemke From the Departments of Pathology and Microbiology (Burton, Mackenzie) and Companion Animals (Lemke, Ihle), Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Ave, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada C1A 4P3.

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Sherri L. Ihle From the Departments of Pathology and Microbiology (Burton, Mackenzie) and Companion Animals (Lemke, Ihle), Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Ave, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada C1A 4P3.

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Allan L. Mackenzie From the Departments of Pathology and Microbiology (Burton, Mackenzie) and Companion Animals (Lemke, Ihle), Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Ave, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada C1A 4P3.

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Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of IV medetomidine administration on selected clinicopathologic variables in dogs.

Animals

6 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure

Dogs were randomly assigned to each of 3 treatments in a crossover study design. Serum osmolality, urine osmolality, urine pH, and fractional clearances of sodium, chloride, potassium, and glucose were determined before and 20, 40, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 minutes after IV administration of 0.9% NaCl (saline) solution (control) or medetomidine (10 or 20 μg/kg of body weight). The urinary bladder was emptied prior to saline or medetomidine administration, and urine volume was determined at the same posttreatment times as those described previously. Free water clearance was calculated for all posttreatment times.

Results

After medetomidine administration, serum osmolality, urine volume, free water clearance, and fractional clearance of potassium and glucose increased; urine osmolality decreased. Initially, urine pH and fractional clearance of chloride decreased, then subsequently increased. Fractional clearance of sodium did not change.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Because IV administration of medetomidine to dogs at dosages of 10 and 20 μg/kg induces a diuretic effect that lasts up to 4 hours, the drug should be used with discretion in hypovolemic or dehydrated dogs, and its use should be avoided in those with urinary tract obstruction. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:756-761)

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of IV medetomidine administration on selected clinicopathologic variables in dogs.

Animals

6 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure

Dogs were randomly assigned to each of 3 treatments in a crossover study design. Serum osmolality, urine osmolality, urine pH, and fractional clearances of sodium, chloride, potassium, and glucose were determined before and 20, 40, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 minutes after IV administration of 0.9% NaCl (saline) solution (control) or medetomidine (10 or 20 μg/kg of body weight). The urinary bladder was emptied prior to saline or medetomidine administration, and urine volume was determined at the same posttreatment times as those described previously. Free water clearance was calculated for all posttreatment times.

Results

After medetomidine administration, serum osmolality, urine volume, free water clearance, and fractional clearance of potassium and glucose increased; urine osmolality decreased. Initially, urine pH and fractional clearance of chloride decreased, then subsequently increased. Fractional clearance of sodium did not change.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Because IV administration of medetomidine to dogs at dosages of 10 and 20 μg/kg induces a diuretic effect that lasts up to 4 hours, the drug should be used with discretion in hypovolemic or dehydrated dogs, and its use should be avoided in those with urinary tract obstruction. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:756-761)

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