Forelimb joint moments and power during the walking stance phase of horses

G. Robert Colborne From the Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology (Colborne) and Mechanical Engineering (Lanovaz), the College of Physical Education (Sprigings), and the Department of Veterinary Anatomy (Clayton), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr, Saskatoon, Sask, Canada S7N 5B4; and the Department of Anatomy (Schamhardt), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80.157, NL-3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Search for other papers by G. Robert Colborne in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Joel L. Lanovaz From the Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology (Colborne) and Mechanical Engineering (Lanovaz), the College of Physical Education (Sprigings), and the Department of Veterinary Anatomy (Clayton), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr, Saskatoon, Sask, Canada S7N 5B4; and the Department of Anatomy (Schamhardt), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80.157, NL-3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Search for other papers by Joel L. Lanovaz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MSc
,
Eric J. Sprigings From the Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology (Colborne) and Mechanical Engineering (Lanovaz), the College of Physical Education (Sprigings), and the Department of Veterinary Anatomy (Clayton), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr, Saskatoon, Sask, Canada S7N 5B4; and the Department of Anatomy (Schamhardt), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80.157, NL-3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Search for other papers by Eric J. Sprigings in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
H. C. Schamhardt From the Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology (Colborne) and Mechanical Engineering (Lanovaz), the College of Physical Education (Sprigings), and the Department of Veterinary Anatomy (Clayton), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr, Saskatoon, Sask, Canada S7N 5B4; and the Department of Anatomy (Schamhardt), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80.157, NL-3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Search for other papers by H. C. Schamhardt in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
, and
Hilary M. Clayton From the Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology (Colborne) and Mechanical Engineering (Lanovaz), the College of Physical Education (Sprigings), and the Department of Veterinary Anatomy (Clayton), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr, Saskatoon, Sask, Canada S7N 5B4; and the Department of Anatomy (Schamhardt), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80.157, NL-3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Search for other papers by Hilary M. Clayton in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVMS, PhD

Click on author name to view affiliation information

Abstract

Objective

To calculate normative joint moments of force and power for the forelimb of walking horses as a benchmark against which to compare these mechanical variables in horses with specific lameness.

Animals

4 Dutch Warmblood horses with no recent history of lameness.

Procedure

Horses were walked by hand through the test area, and data from 5 walking trials were collected for each horse. Two camera views were combined with vertical and craniocaudal ground reaction forces to calculate net moments of force in the sagittal plane across the carpal, metacarpophalangeal (fetlock), and distal interphalangeal (coffin) joints during the stance phase of the forelimb. Mechanical power was calculated as the product of net joint moment and the joint's angular velocity.

Results

During the early part of the stance phase, the carpal joint had oscillating periods of energy generation and absorption against a predominant flexor moment, then an absorption phase at the end of the stance phase, as the carpus flexed into swing against an extensor moment. The fetlock absorbed energy in the early part of the stance phase, then the terminal part was marked by a large generation of energy across the joint. A flexor moment was measured at the coffin joint throughout the stance phase, and this coincided with a long phase of energy absorption followed by a short phase of generation for push-off.

Conclusion

Consistency of the power data indicates that typical profiles of work exist for each of the joints (carpus, fetlock, and coffin).

Clinical Relevance

Detection of changes to these profiles of work may contribute to diagnosis of specific lameness conditions.(Am J Vet Res 1998;59:609–614)

Abstract

Objective

To calculate normative joint moments of force and power for the forelimb of walking horses as a benchmark against which to compare these mechanical variables in horses with specific lameness.

Animals

4 Dutch Warmblood horses with no recent history of lameness.

Procedure

Horses were walked by hand through the test area, and data from 5 walking trials were collected for each horse. Two camera views were combined with vertical and craniocaudal ground reaction forces to calculate net moments of force in the sagittal plane across the carpal, metacarpophalangeal (fetlock), and distal interphalangeal (coffin) joints during the stance phase of the forelimb. Mechanical power was calculated as the product of net joint moment and the joint's angular velocity.

Results

During the early part of the stance phase, the carpal joint had oscillating periods of energy generation and absorption against a predominant flexor moment, then an absorption phase at the end of the stance phase, as the carpus flexed into swing against an extensor moment. The fetlock absorbed energy in the early part of the stance phase, then the terminal part was marked by a large generation of energy across the joint. A flexor moment was measured at the coffin joint throughout the stance phase, and this coincided with a long phase of energy absorption followed by a short phase of generation for push-off.

Conclusion

Consistency of the power data indicates that typical profiles of work exist for each of the joints (carpus, fetlock, and coffin).

Clinical Relevance

Detection of changes to these profiles of work may contribute to diagnosis of specific lameness conditions.(Am J Vet Res 1998;59:609–614)

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 48 48 15
PDF Downloads 33 33 6
Advertisement