Effect of pin hole size and number on in vitro bone strength in the equine radius loaded in torsion

Scott A. Hopper From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hopper, Schneider, White) and Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology (Ratzlaff), College of Veterinary Medicine, and Mechanical Engineering (Johnson), Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.

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 DVM, MS
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Robert K. Schneider From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hopper, Schneider, White) and Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology (Ratzlaff), College of Veterinary Medicine, and Mechanical Engineering (Johnson), Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.

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Marc H. Ratzlaff From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hopper, Schneider, White) and Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology (Ratzlaff), College of Veterinary Medicine, and Mechanical Engineering (Johnson), Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.

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Karl K. White From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hopper, Schneider, White) and Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology (Ratzlaff), College of Veterinary Medicine, and Mechanical Engineering (Johnson), Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.

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Craig H. Johnson From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hopper, Schneider, White) and Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology (Ratzlaff), College of Veterinary Medicine, and Mechanical Engineering (Johnson), Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.

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 PhD

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SUMMARY

Objective

To determine the effect of pin hole size and number on the breaking strength of the adult equine radius when loaded in torsion to failure.

Sample Population

54 pairs of equine radii from adult horses.

Procedure

For test one, 12 pairs of radii were used to determine the effect of pin hole size on torsional breaking strength. A 6.35-mm hole was drilled in 1 radius, and a 9.5-mm hole was drilled in the contralateral radius. For test two, 36 pairs of radii were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 12) to determine the effect of pin hole number on the torsional breaking strength of the equine radius. One radius of each pair served as a control, and one, three, or six 6.35-mm transcortical holes were drilled in the contralateral radius. For test three, 6 pairs of radii had torsional forces applied directly to the transfixation pins, as opposed to the bone itself. One radius of a pair served as a control, and three 6.35-mm smooth Steinman pins were placed in the contralateral radius. All radii were loaded in torsion to failure, and the breaking strengths were recorded.

Results

Compared with the 6.35-mm hole, the 9.5-mm hole significantly decreased torsional strength of the radius. There was no significant difference in mean torsional strength between the control radii and the radii with 1, 3, or 6 transcortical holes or when the transfixation pins were loaded.

Conclusion

Use of up to three 6.35-mm transfixation pins can be used in a full-limb transfixation pin cast to optimize stiffness without a significant decrease (12%) in bone strength. (Am J Vet Res 1998; 59:201–204)

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine the effect of pin hole size and number on the breaking strength of the adult equine radius when loaded in torsion to failure.

Sample Population

54 pairs of equine radii from adult horses.

Procedure

For test one, 12 pairs of radii were used to determine the effect of pin hole size on torsional breaking strength. A 6.35-mm hole was drilled in 1 radius, and a 9.5-mm hole was drilled in the contralateral radius. For test two, 36 pairs of radii were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 12) to determine the effect of pin hole number on the torsional breaking strength of the equine radius. One radius of each pair served as a control, and one, three, or six 6.35-mm transcortical holes were drilled in the contralateral radius. For test three, 6 pairs of radii had torsional forces applied directly to the transfixation pins, as opposed to the bone itself. One radius of a pair served as a control, and three 6.35-mm smooth Steinman pins were placed in the contralateral radius. All radii were loaded in torsion to failure, and the breaking strengths were recorded.

Results

Compared with the 6.35-mm hole, the 9.5-mm hole significantly decreased torsional strength of the radius. There was no significant difference in mean torsional strength between the control radii and the radii with 1, 3, or 6 transcortical holes or when the transfixation pins were loaded.

Conclusion

Use of up to three 6.35-mm transfixation pins can be used in a full-limb transfixation pin cast to optimize stiffness without a significant decrease (12%) in bone strength. (Am J Vet Res 1998; 59:201–204)

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