Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated avian polyomavirus vaccine

Branson W. Ritchie From the Psittacine Disease Research Group, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (Ritchie, Latimer, Pesti, Campagnoli, Lukert); and Biomune Inc, 8906 Rosehill Rd, Lenexa, KS 66215 (Leonard).

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Kenneth S. Latimer From the Psittacine Disease Research Group, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (Ritchie, Latimer, Pesti, Campagnoli, Lukert); and Biomune Inc, 8906 Rosehill Rd, Lenexa, KS 66215 (Leonard).

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Joan Leonard From the Psittacine Disease Research Group, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (Ritchie, Latimer, Pesti, Campagnoli, Lukert); and Biomune Inc, 8906 Rosehill Rd, Lenexa, KS 66215 (Leonard).

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Denise Pesti From the Psittacine Disease Research Group, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (Ritchie, Latimer, Pesti, Campagnoli, Lukert); and Biomune Inc, 8906 Rosehill Rd, Lenexa, KS 66215 (Leonard).

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Raymond Campagnoli From the Psittacine Disease Research Group, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (Ritchie, Latimer, Pesti, Campagnoli, Lukert); and Biomune Inc, 8906 Rosehill Rd, Lenexa, KS 66215 (Leonard).

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Phil D. Lukert From the Psittacine Disease Research Group, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (Ritchie, Latimer, Pesti, Campagnoli, Lukert); and Biomune Inc, 8906 Rosehill Rd, Lenexa, KS 66215 (Leonard).

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SUMMARY

Objective

To determine safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated avian polyomavirus vaccine in nonbudgerigar psittacine birds that varied in age, species, and immunologic status.

Animals

Safety of the vaccine was evaluated in 1,823 psittacines representing more than 80 species. Immunogenicity was evaluated in 285 birds (260 of various Psittaciformes species, 25 chickens). Efficacy was evaluated in 104 birds (78 of various Psittaciformes species, 26 chickens).

Procedures

Safety was evaluated by vaccinating birds that were determined to be seronegative or seropositive (titer > 1:10) prior to vaccination. Birds were then evaluated for clinically detectable systemic or local reactions for 2 months to 2 years. Immunogenicity was evaluated by testing for virus-neutralizing antibodies, vaccinating each bird twice, and then testing for a significant change in antibody titer. Efficacy was evaluated by vaccinating birds, followed in 2 to 4 weeks by intramuscular or intravenous challenge exposure. After challenge exposure, protection was evaluated by attempting to recover virus from tissues or by observing birds for clinical signs of disease and testing for a significant change in titer.

Conclusions

Avian polyomavirus vaccine is safe, immunogenic, and efficacious for use in multiple species of mature and immature psittacines.

Clinical Relevance

Until now, prevention of polyomavirus infection in psittacine birds could only be accomplished through strict isolation to reduce potential exposure to the virus. The USDA-registered inactivated avian polyomavirus vaccine can safely be used to protect vaccinates from infection and control spread of this virus in flocks. (Am J Vet Res 1998,59:143–148)

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated avian polyomavirus vaccine in nonbudgerigar psittacine birds that varied in age, species, and immunologic status.

Animals

Safety of the vaccine was evaluated in 1,823 psittacines representing more than 80 species. Immunogenicity was evaluated in 285 birds (260 of various Psittaciformes species, 25 chickens). Efficacy was evaluated in 104 birds (78 of various Psittaciformes species, 26 chickens).

Procedures

Safety was evaluated by vaccinating birds that were determined to be seronegative or seropositive (titer > 1:10) prior to vaccination. Birds were then evaluated for clinically detectable systemic or local reactions for 2 months to 2 years. Immunogenicity was evaluated by testing for virus-neutralizing antibodies, vaccinating each bird twice, and then testing for a significant change in antibody titer. Efficacy was evaluated by vaccinating birds, followed in 2 to 4 weeks by intramuscular or intravenous challenge exposure. After challenge exposure, protection was evaluated by attempting to recover virus from tissues or by observing birds for clinical signs of disease and testing for a significant change in titer.

Conclusions

Avian polyomavirus vaccine is safe, immunogenic, and efficacious for use in multiple species of mature and immature psittacines.

Clinical Relevance

Until now, prevention of polyomavirus infection in psittacine birds could only be accomplished through strict isolation to reduce potential exposure to the virus. The USDA-registered inactivated avian polyomavirus vaccine can safely be used to protect vaccinates from infection and control spread of this virus in flocks. (Am J Vet Res 1998,59:143–148)

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