Airborne transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in nursery pigs

Montserrat Torremorell From the Department of Clinical and Population Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Torremorell, Pijoan, Joo), and the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (Janni); University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108; and the Southern Agricultural Experimental Station, Waseca, MN 56093 (Walker).

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Carlos Pijoan From the Department of Clinical and Population Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Torremorell, Pijoan, Joo), and the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (Janni); University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108; and the Southern Agricultural Experimental Station, Waseca, MN 56093 (Walker).

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Kevin Janni From the Department of Clinical and Population Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Torremorell, Pijoan, Joo), and the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (Janni); University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108; and the Southern Agricultural Experimental Station, Waseca, MN 56093 (Walker).

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Roger Walker From the Department of Clinical and Population Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Torremorell, Pijoan, Joo), and the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (Janni); University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108; and the Southern Agricultural Experimental Station, Waseca, MN 56093 (Walker).

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Han Soo Joo From the Department of Clinical and Population Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Torremorell, Pijoan, Joo), and the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (Janni); University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108; and the Southern Agricultural Experimental Station, Waseca, MN 56093 (Walker).

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Abstract

Objective

To document airborne transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in nursery pigs.

Animals

32 two-week-old pigs obtained from 3 farms, but with similar Landrace × Yorkshire genetics for trial 1 of each experiment; 16 pigs for trial 2 of the A pleuropneumoniae experiment; and 14 pigs for trial 2 of the PRRSV experiment.

Procedure

In experiment 1, pigs were inoculated with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (6/8) or were left as contacts (2/8). At the beginning of trial 1, pigs were seronegative to A pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 5 on the basis of results of an ELISA, but had positive results on the A pleuropneumoniae hemolysin I (Apx1)-neutralization test. Pigs in trial 2 had negative results on both tests. Pigs of trial 1 of experiment 2 were inoculated with a PRRSV virulent field isolate (MN-1b); pigs of trial 2 were inoculated with the virus reference strain VR-2332. Aerosol-exposed pigs were placed on the other side of the air duct and kept there for 2 to 7 weeks depending on evidence of airborne transmission.

Results

In trial 1 of experiment 1, evidence of airborne transmission was not found. In trial 2, most airborne-exposed pigs died as a result of A pleuropneumoniae infection 12 days after initiation of the experiment. In trial 1 of experiment 2, all inoculated pigs (8/8) seroconverted, but only 2 of 8 contact-exposed pigs seroconverted. Aerosol-exposed pigs did not seroconvert nor was virus isolated. In trial 2, all inoculated and contact-exposed pigs seroconverted. All aerosol-exposed pigs seroconverted after 21 days, and virus was isolated at 16 days.

Conclusions

A pleuropneumoniae was transmitted by air at a distance of 1 m when pigs were fully susceptible to the organism. Transmission of PRRSV appeared to be strain dependent; when reference strain VR-2332 was used, airborne transmission of PRRSV was documented. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:828–832)

Abstract

Objective

To document airborne transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in nursery pigs.

Animals

32 two-week-old pigs obtained from 3 farms, but with similar Landrace × Yorkshire genetics for trial 1 of each experiment; 16 pigs for trial 2 of the A pleuropneumoniae experiment; and 14 pigs for trial 2 of the PRRSV experiment.

Procedure

In experiment 1, pigs were inoculated with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (6/8) or were left as contacts (2/8). At the beginning of trial 1, pigs were seronegative to A pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 5 on the basis of results of an ELISA, but had positive results on the A pleuropneumoniae hemolysin I (Apx1)-neutralization test. Pigs in trial 2 had negative results on both tests. Pigs of trial 1 of experiment 2 were inoculated with a PRRSV virulent field isolate (MN-1b); pigs of trial 2 were inoculated with the virus reference strain VR-2332. Aerosol-exposed pigs were placed on the other side of the air duct and kept there for 2 to 7 weeks depending on evidence of airborne transmission.

Results

In trial 1 of experiment 1, evidence of airborne transmission was not found. In trial 2, most airborne-exposed pigs died as a result of A pleuropneumoniae infection 12 days after initiation of the experiment. In trial 1 of experiment 2, all inoculated pigs (8/8) seroconverted, but only 2 of 8 contact-exposed pigs seroconverted. Aerosol-exposed pigs did not seroconvert nor was virus isolated. In trial 2, all inoculated and contact-exposed pigs seroconverted. All aerosol-exposed pigs seroconverted after 21 days, and virus was isolated at 16 days.

Conclusions

A pleuropneumoniae was transmitted by air at a distance of 1 m when pigs were fully susceptible to the organism. Transmission of PRRSV appeared to be strain dependent; when reference strain VR-2332 was used, airborne transmission of PRRSV was documented. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:828–832)

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