Effects of three sedative protocols on glomerular filtration rate in clinically normal dogs

Susan M. Newell From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Newell, Hyatt, Cardwell, Mauragis), Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Ko, Heaton-Jones), Pathobiology (Ginn), College of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 100102, and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (Harrison), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610.

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Jeff C. Ko From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Newell, Hyatt, Cardwell, Mauragis), Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Ko, Heaton-Jones), Pathobiology (Ginn), College of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 100102, and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (Harrison), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610.

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Pamela E. Ginn From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Newell, Hyatt, Cardwell, Mauragis), Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Ko, Heaton-Jones), Pathobiology (Ginn), College of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 100102, and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (Harrison), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610.

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Terrell G. Heaton-Jones From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Newell, Hyatt, Cardwell, Mauragis), Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Ko, Heaton-Jones), Pathobiology (Ginn), College of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 100102, and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (Harrison), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610.

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Debra A. Hyatt From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Newell, Hyatt, Cardwell, Mauragis), Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Ko, Heaton-Jones), Pathobiology (Ginn), College of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 100102, and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (Harrison), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610.

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Amy L. Cardwell From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Newell, Hyatt, Cardwell, Mauragis), Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Ko, Heaton-Jones), Pathobiology (Ginn), College of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 100102, and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (Harrison), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610.

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Danielle F. Mauragis From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Newell, Hyatt, Cardwell, Mauragis), Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Ko, Heaton-Jones), Pathobiology (Ginn), College of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 100102, and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (Harrison), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610.

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Jay M. Harrison From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Newell, Hyatt, Cardwell, Mauragis), Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Ko, Heaton-Jones), Pathobiology (Ginn), College of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 100102, and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (Harrison), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610.

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Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of 3 sedative protocols (butorphanol and diazepam [BD] IV; acepromazine and butorphanol [AB] IV; diazepam and ketamine [DK] IV) on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as measured by 99mTc DTPA nuclear scintigraphy and to compare them with GFR measured without sedation. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and sedative effects of each protocol also were measured.

Animals

12 adult male Walker Hounds.

Procedure

Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures and heart and respiratory rates were measured before, during, and after scintigraphic measurement of GFR.

Results

Difference in GFR was not significant between any of the sedative regimens and the control. The DK protocol caused significant increases in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure; compared with the AB and BD protocols, it caused significant increases in heart rate versus all protocols, and was associated with the lowest mean GFR (2.80 ml/min/kg of body weight). The AB protocol caused significant decreases in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures, compared with DK and the nonsedation protocols. Mean GFR for the BD protocol was 2.94 ml/min/kg, and was 3.13 ml/min/kg for the AB and the nonsedation protocols. The AB protocol provided the best sedation with minimal additional restraint required. The BD and nonsedation protocols often were associated with substantial dog movement. The DK protocol induced inadequate duration of immobilization (< 10 minutes) in some dogs and excitement in others.

Conclusion

GFR measurements obtained with any of the sedative protocols were not significantly different, compared with measurements in awake dogs. The AB protocol provides the best sedative effects and was associated with GFR values identical to those in awake dogs. Systemic hypotension caused by acepromazine did not decrease GFR in clinically normal dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:446–450)

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of 3 sedative protocols (butorphanol and diazepam [BD] IV; acepromazine and butorphanol [AB] IV; diazepam and ketamine [DK] IV) on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as measured by 99mTc DTPA nuclear scintigraphy and to compare them with GFR measured without sedation. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and sedative effects of each protocol also were measured.

Animals

12 adult male Walker Hounds.

Procedure

Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures and heart and respiratory rates were measured before, during, and after scintigraphic measurement of GFR.

Results

Difference in GFR was not significant between any of the sedative regimens and the control. The DK protocol caused significant increases in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure; compared with the AB and BD protocols, it caused significant increases in heart rate versus all protocols, and was associated with the lowest mean GFR (2.80 ml/min/kg of body weight). The AB protocol caused significant decreases in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures, compared with DK and the nonsedation protocols. Mean GFR for the BD protocol was 2.94 ml/min/kg, and was 3.13 ml/min/kg for the AB and the nonsedation protocols. The AB protocol provided the best sedation with minimal additional restraint required. The BD and nonsedation protocols often were associated with substantial dog movement. The DK protocol induced inadequate duration of immobilization (< 10 minutes) in some dogs and excitement in others.

Conclusion

GFR measurements obtained with any of the sedative protocols were not significantly different, compared with measurements in awake dogs. The AB protocol provides the best sedative effects and was associated with GFR values identical to those in awake dogs. Systemic hypotension caused by acepromazine did not decrease GFR in clinically normal dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:446–450)

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