Active and passive immune responses to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in swine inoculated with recombinant baculovirus-expressed TGEV spike glycoprotein vaccines

David I. Shoup From the Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center (OARDC), The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691.

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Daral J. Jackwood From the Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center (OARDC), The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691.

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Linda J. Saif From the Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center (OARDC), The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691.

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Abstract

Objective

Baculovirus-expressed transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike (S) glycoprotein vaccines were inoculated parenterally in swine to determine whether such vaccines could induce serum and whey virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies and protective lactogenic immunity for TGEV-challenge-exposed pigs.

Animals and Procedures

3 recombinant baculoviruses that expressed full or partial length TGEV Miller strain S glycoproteins were inoculated SC in 17 conventionally raised 11-day-old TGEV-seronegative pigs to determine whether the recombinant S glycoproteins would elicit serum VN antibodies. Eleven TGEV-seronegative pregnant sows were inoculated SC or intramammarily with subunit vaccines (R2-2 or R3-5) or control proteins. Pigs born to 9 of the 11 sows were challenge exposed at 4 to 5 days of age with the virulent Miller strain, and passive immunity was assessed. Serum and whey antibody responses to TGEV were analyzed by VN and ELISA testing.

Results

Recombinant S glycoproteins (R2-2 or R3-5) containing the 4 major antigenic sites induced similar VN antibody titers to TGEV in serum and colostrum, but low (some sows) or no VN antibody titer was detected in milk. Subcutaneous inoculation of sows with R2-2 or R3-5 elicited IgG, but not IgA antibodies to TGEV in colostrum. Morbidity was 100%, and mortality ranged from 20 to 80% in TGEV challenge-exposed pigs nursing sows inoculated SC or intramammarily with TGEV S glycoprotein vaccines.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Parenterally administered TGEV S glycoprotein vaccines elicit VN antibodies to TGEV in serum and colostrum that do not fully provide active or passive immunity in swine. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:242–250)

Abstract

Objective

Baculovirus-expressed transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike (S) glycoprotein vaccines were inoculated parenterally in swine to determine whether such vaccines could induce serum and whey virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies and protective lactogenic immunity for TGEV-challenge-exposed pigs.

Animals and Procedures

3 recombinant baculoviruses that expressed full or partial length TGEV Miller strain S glycoproteins were inoculated SC in 17 conventionally raised 11-day-old TGEV-seronegative pigs to determine whether the recombinant S glycoproteins would elicit serum VN antibodies. Eleven TGEV-seronegative pregnant sows were inoculated SC or intramammarily with subunit vaccines (R2-2 or R3-5) or control proteins. Pigs born to 9 of the 11 sows were challenge exposed at 4 to 5 days of age with the virulent Miller strain, and passive immunity was assessed. Serum and whey antibody responses to TGEV were analyzed by VN and ELISA testing.

Results

Recombinant S glycoproteins (R2-2 or R3-5) containing the 4 major antigenic sites induced similar VN antibody titers to TGEV in serum and colostrum, but low (some sows) or no VN antibody titer was detected in milk. Subcutaneous inoculation of sows with R2-2 or R3-5 elicited IgG, but not IgA antibodies to TGEV in colostrum. Morbidity was 100%, and mortality ranged from 20 to 80% in TGEV challenge-exposed pigs nursing sows inoculated SC or intramammarily with TGEV S glycoprotein vaccines.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Parenterally administered TGEV S glycoprotein vaccines elicit VN antibodies to TGEV in serum and colostrum that do not fully provide active or passive immunity in swine. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:242–250)

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