Use of carbamylated hemoglobin concentration to differentiate acute from chronic renal failure in dogs

Shelly L. Vaden From the Departments of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine (Vaden, Gookin, Trogdon), and Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology (Levine), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27606; the Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Cowgill) and the Center for Companion Animal Health (Langston), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616-8734; and The Animal Medical Center, New York, NY, 10021 (Langston).

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Jody Gookin From the Departments of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine (Vaden, Gookin, Trogdon), and Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology (Levine), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27606; the Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Cowgill) and the Center for Companion Animal Health (Langston), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616-8734; and The Animal Medical Center, New York, NY, 10021 (Langston).

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Maureen Trogdon From the Departments of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine (Vaden, Gookin, Trogdon), and Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology (Levine), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27606; the Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Cowgill) and the Center for Companion Animal Health (Langston), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616-8734; and The Animal Medical Center, New York, NY, 10021 (Langston).

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Cathy E. Langston From the Departments of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine (Vaden, Gookin, Trogdon), and Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology (Levine), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27606; the Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Cowgill) and the Center for Companion Animal Health (Langston), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616-8734; and The Animal Medical Center, New York, NY, 10021 (Langston).

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Jay Levine From the Departments of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine (Vaden, Gookin, Trogdon), and Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology (Levine), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27606; the Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Cowgill) and the Center for Companion Animal Health (Langston), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616-8734; and The Animal Medical Center, New York, NY, 10021 (Langston).

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Larry D. Cowgill From the Departments of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine (Vaden, Gookin, Trogdon), and Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology (Levine), College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27606; the Department of Medicine and Epidemiology (Cowgill) and the Center for Companion Animal Health (Langston), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616-8734; and The Animal Medical Center, New York, NY, 10021 (Langston).

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SUMMARY

Objective

To determine usefulness of carbamylated hemoglobin (CarHb) concentration for differentiation of acute renal failure (ARF) from chronic renal failure (CRF) in dogs.

Sample Population

Samples from dogs with ARF or CRF and from nonazotemic control dogs.

Procedure

CarHb concentration was determined in heparinized blood samples by measuring the micrograms of valine hydantoin (VH) per gram of hemoglobin (Hb), using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay, in which carbamyl valine is converted to VH via acid hydrolysis.

Results

CarHb concentration was significantly higher in dogs with ARF and CRF, compared with values in control dogs (ARF vs control, P < 0.05; CRF vs control, P < 0.001). Furthermore, CarHb concentration was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in dogs with CRF, compared with that in dogs with ARF. Carbamylated hemoglobin concentration did not correlate with serum urea nitrogen or creatinine concentration. Using a cutoff value of 100 μg of VH/g of Hb, the sensitivity and specificity of CarHb concentration for differentiating ARF from CRF was 96.1 and 84.2%, respectively.

Conclusions

CarHb concentration was useful in the differentiation of ARF from CRF in the dogs of this study.

Clinical Relevance

CarHb concentration may be used to increase the accuracy of identifying ARF, so that early, aggressive management can be instituted, thereby increasing the chance of recovery. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1193–1196)

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine usefulness of carbamylated hemoglobin (CarHb) concentration for differentiation of acute renal failure (ARF) from chronic renal failure (CRF) in dogs.

Sample Population

Samples from dogs with ARF or CRF and from nonazotemic control dogs.

Procedure

CarHb concentration was determined in heparinized blood samples by measuring the micrograms of valine hydantoin (VH) per gram of hemoglobin (Hb), using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay, in which carbamyl valine is converted to VH via acid hydrolysis.

Results

CarHb concentration was significantly higher in dogs with ARF and CRF, compared with values in control dogs (ARF vs control, P < 0.05; CRF vs control, P < 0.001). Furthermore, CarHb concentration was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in dogs with CRF, compared with that in dogs with ARF. Carbamylated hemoglobin concentration did not correlate with serum urea nitrogen or creatinine concentration. Using a cutoff value of 100 μg of VH/g of Hb, the sensitivity and specificity of CarHb concentration for differentiating ARF from CRF was 96.1 and 84.2%, respectively.

Conclusions

CarHb concentration was useful in the differentiation of ARF from CRF in the dogs of this study.

Clinical Relevance

CarHb concentration may be used to increase the accuracy of identifying ARF, so that early, aggressive management can be instituted, thereby increasing the chance of recovery. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1193–1196)

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