Comparative pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone and its metabolite oxyphenbutazone in clinically normal horses and donkeys

Katrina L. Mealey From the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (Mealey), Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Matthews), and Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Taylor), and Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Peck, Ray), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840.

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Nora S. Matthews From the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (Mealey), Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Matthews), and Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Taylor), and Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Peck, Ray), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840.

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Kenneth E. Peck From the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (Mealey), Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Matthews), and Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Taylor), and Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Peck, Ray), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840.

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Allen C. Ray From the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (Mealey), Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Matthews), and Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Taylor), and Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Peck, Ray), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840.

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T. S. Taylor From the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (Mealey), Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Matthews), and Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Taylor), and Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Peck, Ray), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840.

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Abstract

Objective

To compare plasma disposition of phenylbutazone and its metabolite oxyphenbutazone after IV administration of phenylbutazone in horses and donkeys.

Animals

4 clinically normal horses and 6 clinically normal donkeys.

Procedure

Blood samples were collected from each animal at time 0 (before) and 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, and 480 minutes after IV administration of a bolus dose of phenylbutazone. Serum was analyzed in triplicate by use of high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone concentrations. The serum concentration-time curve for each horse and donkey was analyzed separately to estimate model-independent pharmacokinetic variables.

Results

Significant differences were found in several pharmacokinetic variables of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone in horses, compared with donkeys. Mean total body clearance of phenylbutazone in horses was fivefold less than that in donkeys (29.3 and 170.3 ml/kg/h, respectively). Mean values for area under the curve and mean residence time in horses (118.3 µg/h/ml and 3.6 hours, respectively) were significantly greater than values in donkeys (28.3 µg/h/ml and 1.7 hours, respectively). Mean values for apparent volume of distribution at steady state were not significantly different between horses and donkeys. For oxyphenbutazone, mean time to peak concentration in donkeys was significantly less than that in horses (1.6 and 6.4 hours, respectively).

Conclusion

Phenylbutazone clearance in donkeys was higher than that in horses, and appearance of the metabolite oxyphenbutazone in serum was more rapid in donkeys than in horses, indicating that hepatic metabolism of phenylbutazone is more rapid in donkeys than in horses.

Clinical Relevance

Because serum concentration of phenylbutazone after single IV bolus administration (4.4 mg/kg of body weight) decreases more rapidly in donkeys, compared with horses, phenylbutazone may require more frequent administration in donkeys to achieve therapeutic efficacy. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:53–55)

Abstract

Objective

To compare plasma disposition of phenylbutazone and its metabolite oxyphenbutazone after IV administration of phenylbutazone in horses and donkeys.

Animals

4 clinically normal horses and 6 clinically normal donkeys.

Procedure

Blood samples were collected from each animal at time 0 (before) and 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, and 480 minutes after IV administration of a bolus dose of phenylbutazone. Serum was analyzed in triplicate by use of high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone concentrations. The serum concentration-time curve for each horse and donkey was analyzed separately to estimate model-independent pharmacokinetic variables.

Results

Significant differences were found in several pharmacokinetic variables of phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone in horses, compared with donkeys. Mean total body clearance of phenylbutazone in horses was fivefold less than that in donkeys (29.3 and 170.3 ml/kg/h, respectively). Mean values for area under the curve and mean residence time in horses (118.3 µg/h/ml and 3.6 hours, respectively) were significantly greater than values in donkeys (28.3 µg/h/ml and 1.7 hours, respectively). Mean values for apparent volume of distribution at steady state were not significantly different between horses and donkeys. For oxyphenbutazone, mean time to peak concentration in donkeys was significantly less than that in horses (1.6 and 6.4 hours, respectively).

Conclusion

Phenylbutazone clearance in donkeys was higher than that in horses, and appearance of the metabolite oxyphenbutazone in serum was more rapid in donkeys than in horses, indicating that hepatic metabolism of phenylbutazone is more rapid in donkeys than in horses.

Clinical Relevance

Because serum concentration of phenylbutazone after single IV bolus administration (4.4 mg/kg of body weight) decreases more rapidly in donkeys, compared with horses, phenylbutazone may require more frequent administration in donkeys to achieve therapeutic efficacy. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:53–55)

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