Single intravenous and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in healthy llamas

Margaret N. Lackey From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Lackey, Belknap, Greco) and Pathology (Fettman), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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 VMD, MS
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Ellen B. Belknap From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Lackey, Belknap, Greco) and Pathology (Fettman), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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 DVM, MS
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Deborah S. Greco From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Lackey, Belknap, Greco) and Pathology (Fettman), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Martin J. Fettman From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Lackey, Belknap, Greco) and Pathology (Fettman), Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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 DVM, PhD

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Objective

To determine the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin sulfate in healthy llamas after IV administration of a single bolus and after repeated parenteral administration.

Design

Prospective clinical trial.

Animals

19 clinically normal, adult male llamas for the single-dose trial and 10 of the 19 llamas for the multiple-dose trial.

Procedure

In the first trial, llamas were given gentamicin (5 mg/kg of body weight, IV) as a single bolus, and serum gentamicin concentration was monitored over the next 48 hours. 2 months later, llamas were given gentamicin (2.5 mg/kg) IV for the first day, then IM every 8 hours for 7 days. Serum gentamicin concentration and indices of renal function and damage were monitored during the 7 days.

Results

There were no significant dose- or time-related differences in clearance of the drug; volume of distribution; apparent coefficients of the distribution and elimination phases, α and β, respectively; mean residence time; or distribution (t½α) and elimination phase (tt/2β) half-lives. The 5 mg/kg IV kinetic study revealed t½β, of 14.5 ± 5.06 minutes and t½β of 166 ± 20.5 minutes. The 2.5 mg/kg IV kinetic study revealed t½α of 17.7 ± 6.59 minutes and t½β of 165 ± 40.3 minutes. Peak serum gentamicin concentration averaged 10.10 μg/ml in the multiple-dose trial, and trough concentration averaged 1.50 μg/ml.

Conclusions

Dose effects were not observed for gentamicin clearance, volume of distribution, or half-lives. Multiple dosing at 2.5 mg/kg every 8 hours does not appear to cause renal impairment in healthy llamas.

Clinical Relevance

Gentamicin pharmacokinetic variables in llamas appear to resemble those in other ruminant species. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1193–1199)

Objective

To determine the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin sulfate in healthy llamas after IV administration of a single bolus and after repeated parenteral administration.

Design

Prospective clinical trial.

Animals

19 clinically normal, adult male llamas for the single-dose trial and 10 of the 19 llamas for the multiple-dose trial.

Procedure

In the first trial, llamas were given gentamicin (5 mg/kg of body weight, IV) as a single bolus, and serum gentamicin concentration was monitored over the next 48 hours. 2 months later, llamas were given gentamicin (2.5 mg/kg) IV for the first day, then IM every 8 hours for 7 days. Serum gentamicin concentration and indices of renal function and damage were monitored during the 7 days.

Results

There were no significant dose- or time-related differences in clearance of the drug; volume of distribution; apparent coefficients of the distribution and elimination phases, α and β, respectively; mean residence time; or distribution (t½α) and elimination phase (tt/2β) half-lives. The 5 mg/kg IV kinetic study revealed t½β, of 14.5 ± 5.06 minutes and t½β of 166 ± 20.5 minutes. The 2.5 mg/kg IV kinetic study revealed t½α of 17.7 ± 6.59 minutes and t½β of 165 ± 40.3 minutes. Peak serum gentamicin concentration averaged 10.10 μg/ml in the multiple-dose trial, and trough concentration averaged 1.50 μg/ml.

Conclusions

Dose effects were not observed for gentamicin clearance, volume of distribution, or half-lives. Multiple dosing at 2.5 mg/kg every 8 hours does not appear to cause renal impairment in healthy llamas.

Clinical Relevance

Gentamicin pharmacokinetic variables in llamas appear to resemble those in other ruminant species. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1193–1199)

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