Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation versus thromboxane synthetase inhibition on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicosis in healthy male dogs

Gregory F. Grauer From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Grauer, Greco, Behrend, Mani) and Pathology (Feltman) and Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Getzy), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado Stale University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Research and Development, The Iams Company, PO Box 189, Lewisburg, OH 45338 (Reinhart).

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Deborah S. Greco From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Grauer, Greco, Behrend, Mani) and Pathology (Feltman) and Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Getzy), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado Stale University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Research and Development, The Iams Company, PO Box 189, Lewisburg, OH 45338 (Reinhart).

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Ellen N. Behrend From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Grauer, Greco, Behrend, Mani) and Pathology (Feltman) and Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Getzy), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado Stale University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Research and Development, The Iams Company, PO Box 189, Lewisburg, OH 45338 (Reinhart).

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Martin J. Fettman From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Grauer, Greco, Behrend, Mani) and Pathology (Feltman) and Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Getzy), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado Stale University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Research and Development, The Iams Company, PO Box 189, Lewisburg, OH 45338 (Reinhart).

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Indu Mani From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Grauer, Greco, Behrend, Mani) and Pathology (Feltman) and Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Getzy), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado Stale University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Research and Development, The Iams Company, PO Box 189, Lewisburg, OH 45338 (Reinhart).

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David M. Getzy From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Grauer, Greco, Behrend, Mani) and Pathology (Feltman) and Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Getzy), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado Stale University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Research and Development, The Iams Company, PO Box 189, Lewisburg, OH 45338 (Reinhart).

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Gregory A. Reinhart From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Grauer, Greco, Behrend, Mani) and Pathology (Feltman) and Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Getzy), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado Stale University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Research and Development, The Iams Company, PO Box 189, Lewisburg, OH 45338 (Reinhart).

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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the protective effects of dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation versus treatment with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (TXSI) in dogs given high-dose gentamicin.

Design

Clinicopathologic and renal histopathologic changes induced by gentamicin (10 mg/kg of body weight, IM, q 8 h, for 8 days) were compared in dogs fed an n-3 fatty acid-supplemented diet containing a fatty acid ratio of 5.7:1 (n-6:n-3), dogs treated with CGS 12970 (a specific TXSI given at 30 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h, beginning 2 days prior to gentamicin administration), and control dogs. The TXSI-treated and control dogs were fed a diet with a fatty acid ratio of 51.5:1 (n-6:n-3). Both diets were fed beginning 42 days prior to and during the 8-day course of gentamicin administration.

Animals

Eighteen 6-month-old male Beagles, 6 in each group.

Results

After 8 days of gentamicin administration, differences existed among groups. Compared with n-3-supplemented and control dogs, TXSI-treated dogs had higher creatinine clearance. Both TXSI-treated and n-3-supplemented dogs had higher urinary prostaglandin E2 and E3 (PGE2/3) and 6-keto prostaglandin F (PGF) excretion, compared with control dogs. Urinary thromboxane B2 (TXB2) excretion was higher in n-3-supplemented and control dogs, compared with TXSI-treated dogs. Urine PGE2/3-to-TXB2 and PGF-to-TXB2 ratios were increased in TXSI-treated dogs, compared with n-3-supplemented and control dogs, and these ratios were increased in n-3-supplemented dogs, compared with control dogs. In addition, TXSI-treated and n-3-supplemented dogs had lower urinary protein excretion, compared with control dogs. Proximal tubular necrosis was less severe in TXSI-treated dogs, compared with control dogs.

Conclusion

Treatment with CGS 12970 prior to and during gentamicin administration prevented increases in urinary TXB2 excretion and reduced nephrotoxicosis.

Clinical Relevance

Increased renal production/excretion of thromboxane is important in the pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicosis. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:948–956)

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the protective effects of dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation versus treatment with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (TXSI) in dogs given high-dose gentamicin.

Design

Clinicopathologic and renal histopathologic changes induced by gentamicin (10 mg/kg of body weight, IM, q 8 h, for 8 days) were compared in dogs fed an n-3 fatty acid-supplemented diet containing a fatty acid ratio of 5.7:1 (n-6:n-3), dogs treated with CGS 12970 (a specific TXSI given at 30 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h, beginning 2 days prior to gentamicin administration), and control dogs. The TXSI-treated and control dogs were fed a diet with a fatty acid ratio of 51.5:1 (n-6:n-3). Both diets were fed beginning 42 days prior to and during the 8-day course of gentamicin administration.

Animals

Eighteen 6-month-old male Beagles, 6 in each group.

Results

After 8 days of gentamicin administration, differences existed among groups. Compared with n-3-supplemented and control dogs, TXSI-treated dogs had higher creatinine clearance. Both TXSI-treated and n-3-supplemented dogs had higher urinary prostaglandin E2 and E3 (PGE2/3) and 6-keto prostaglandin F (PGF) excretion, compared with control dogs. Urinary thromboxane B2 (TXB2) excretion was higher in n-3-supplemented and control dogs, compared with TXSI-treated dogs. Urine PGE2/3-to-TXB2 and PGF-to-TXB2 ratios were increased in TXSI-treated dogs, compared with n-3-supplemented and control dogs, and these ratios were increased in n-3-supplemented dogs, compared with control dogs. In addition, TXSI-treated and n-3-supplemented dogs had lower urinary protein excretion, compared with control dogs. Proximal tubular necrosis was less severe in TXSI-treated dogs, compared with control dogs.

Conclusion

Treatment with CGS 12970 prior to and during gentamicin administration prevented increases in urinary TXB2 excretion and reduced nephrotoxicosis.

Clinical Relevance

Increased renal production/excretion of thromboxane is important in the pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicosis. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:948–956)

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