Effects of potentiated chlorhexidine on bacteria and tarsocrural joints in ponies

Andreas Klohnen From the Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory (Klohnen, Wilson) and Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hendrickson) and Pathobiological Sciences (Cooley, MacWilliams), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr West, Madison, W1 53706.

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David G. Wilson From the Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory (Klohnen, Wilson) and Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hendrickson) and Pathobiological Sciences (Cooley, MacWilliams), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr West, Madison, W1 53706.

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Dean A. Hendrickson From the Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory (Klohnen, Wilson) and Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hendrickson) and Pathobiological Sciences (Cooley, MacWilliams), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr West, Madison, W1 53706.

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A. James Cooley From the Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory (Klohnen, Wilson) and Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hendrickson) and Pathobiological Sciences (Cooley, MacWilliams), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr West, Madison, W1 53706.

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Peter S. MacWilliams From the Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory (Klohnen, Wilson) and Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hendrickson) and Pathobiological Sciences (Cooley, MacWilliams), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr West, Madison, W1 53706.

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Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the bactericidal properties of chlorhexidine diacetate (CHD) after potentiation with EDTA and Tris buffer (EDTA-Tris), and to find a potentiated CHD concentration that would achieve 90 to 100% killing for all bacteria tested.

Animals

6 adult ponies.

Procedure

Serial dilutions of CHD, CHD in EDTA-Tris, and EDTA-Tris alone were evaluated for bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. The tarsocrural joints of 6 ponies were lavaged with either 1 L of phosphate buffered saline solution (control) or 1 L of 0.0005% CHD in EDTA-Tris. Synovial fluid was collected before lavage and on days 1,4, and 8. Synovia, cartilage, and bone with cartilage were collected on day 8 when the ponies were euthanatized.

Results

In vitro results indicated that 0.0005% CHD in EDTA-Tris was 90% lethal to all bacteria tested. Results of synovial fluid analysis, glycosaminoglycan analysis, and histologic examination of the synovial membrane and articular cartilage indicated that joint lavage with 0.0005% CHD in EDTA-Tris was not detrimental to the synovium or the articular cartilage of pony tarsocrural joints. Changes observed were a result of the actual lavage process, the phosphate-buffered saline solution, and hemarthrosis.

Conclusions

A concentration of 0.0005% CHD in EDTA-Tris was 90% lethal to all bacteria tested. Pony tarsocrural joint lavage with 0.0005% CHD in EDTA-Tris was not detrimental to the synovium or the articular cartilage. The efficacy of 0.0005% CHD potentiated with EDTA-Tris as a potential joint lavage fluid for treatment of infectious arthritis needs to be evaluated in clinical patients. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:756–761)

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the bactericidal properties of chlorhexidine diacetate (CHD) after potentiation with EDTA and Tris buffer (EDTA-Tris), and to find a potentiated CHD concentration that would achieve 90 to 100% killing for all bacteria tested.

Animals

6 adult ponies.

Procedure

Serial dilutions of CHD, CHD in EDTA-Tris, and EDTA-Tris alone were evaluated for bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. The tarsocrural joints of 6 ponies were lavaged with either 1 L of phosphate buffered saline solution (control) or 1 L of 0.0005% CHD in EDTA-Tris. Synovial fluid was collected before lavage and on days 1,4, and 8. Synovia, cartilage, and bone with cartilage were collected on day 8 when the ponies were euthanatized.

Results

In vitro results indicated that 0.0005% CHD in EDTA-Tris was 90% lethal to all bacteria tested. Results of synovial fluid analysis, glycosaminoglycan analysis, and histologic examination of the synovial membrane and articular cartilage indicated that joint lavage with 0.0005% CHD in EDTA-Tris was not detrimental to the synovium or the articular cartilage of pony tarsocrural joints. Changes observed were a result of the actual lavage process, the phosphate-buffered saline solution, and hemarthrosis.

Conclusions

A concentration of 0.0005% CHD in EDTA-Tris was 90% lethal to all bacteria tested. Pony tarsocrural joint lavage with 0.0005% CHD in EDTA-Tris was not detrimental to the synovium or the articular cartilage. The efficacy of 0.0005% CHD potentiated with EDTA-Tris as a potential joint lavage fluid for treatment of infectious arthritis needs to be evaluated in clinical patients. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:756–761)

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