Morphometric evaluation of immunoglobulin A-containing and immunoglobulin G-containing cells and T cells in duodenal mucosa from healthy dogs and from dogs with inflammatory bowel disease or nonspecific gastroenteritis

Albert E. Jergens From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Jergens), Veterinary Pathology (Haynes), and Microbiology. Immunology, and Preventive Medicine (Kinyon), College of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Statistics and Statistical Laboratory (Kaiser), Iowa Slate University, Ames, 1A 50011, and Veterinary Division, Marshfield Laboratories, 1000 North Oak Ave, Marshfield, W1 54449-5795 (Moore).

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Frances M. Moore From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Jergens), Veterinary Pathology (Haynes), and Microbiology. Immunology, and Preventive Medicine (Kinyon), College of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Statistics and Statistical Laboratory (Kaiser), Iowa Slate University, Ames, 1A 50011, and Veterinary Division, Marshfield Laboratories, 1000 North Oak Ave, Marshfield, W1 54449-5795 (Moore).

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Mark S. Kaiser From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Jergens), Veterinary Pathology (Haynes), and Microbiology. Immunology, and Preventive Medicine (Kinyon), College of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Statistics and Statistical Laboratory (Kaiser), Iowa Slate University, Ames, 1A 50011, and Veterinary Division, Marshfield Laboratories, 1000 North Oak Ave, Marshfield, W1 54449-5795 (Moore).

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Joseph S. Haynes From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Jergens), Veterinary Pathology (Haynes), and Microbiology. Immunology, and Preventive Medicine (Kinyon), College of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Statistics and Statistical Laboratory (Kaiser), Iowa Slate University, Ames, 1A 50011, and Veterinary Division, Marshfield Laboratories, 1000 North Oak Ave, Marshfield, W1 54449-5795 (Moore).

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Joann M. Kinyon From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Jergens), Veterinary Pathology (Haynes), and Microbiology. Immunology, and Preventive Medicine (Kinyon), College of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Statistics and Statistical Laboratory (Kaiser), Iowa Slate University, Ames, 1A 50011, and Veterinary Division, Marshfield Laboratories, 1000 North Oak Ave, Marshfield, W1 54449-5795 (Moore).

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Abstract

Objective

To investigate the distribution of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells in the villi of duodenal mucosa from healthy dogs and from dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or gastroenteritis.

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

28 dogs, grouped according to clinical and histologic criteria: 11 dogs with IBD, 8 dogs with nonspecific gastroenteritis, and 9 healthy dogs.

Procedure

Endoscopic biopsy specimens of duodenal mucosa from each dog were stained specifically for IgA and IgG heavy chains and pan T-cell (CD3) antigen, using immunoperoxidase techniques. Morphometric analysis, performed via an image-analysis system, was used to count IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells within paired contiguous villi from each dog.

Results

T cells were the predominant immune cell type in all groups of dogs. Significant differences in the villus distribution of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells were not observed. Healthy dogs had significantly higher T-cell counts than had dogs with IBD or gastroenteritis. Dogs with nonspecific gastroenteritis had a significantly higher concentration of IgA-containing cells than the other groups of dogs had. Significant group differences for IgG-containing cells also were evident, with dogs with IBD having the lowest cell counts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

High concentrations of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells in the villus lamina propria cannot be reliably used to distinguish IBD from other intestinal disorders in dogs. Evaluation of T cells may be the most discriminatory method for differentiating dogs with IBD from clinically normal dogs via examination of intestinal biopsy specimens. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:697–704)

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the distribution of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells in the villi of duodenal mucosa from healthy dogs and from dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or gastroenteritis.

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

28 dogs, grouped according to clinical and histologic criteria: 11 dogs with IBD, 8 dogs with nonspecific gastroenteritis, and 9 healthy dogs.

Procedure

Endoscopic biopsy specimens of duodenal mucosa from each dog were stained specifically for IgA and IgG heavy chains and pan T-cell (CD3) antigen, using immunoperoxidase techniques. Morphometric analysis, performed via an image-analysis system, was used to count IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells within paired contiguous villi from each dog.

Results

T cells were the predominant immune cell type in all groups of dogs. Significant differences in the villus distribution of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells were not observed. Healthy dogs had significantly higher T-cell counts than had dogs with IBD or gastroenteritis. Dogs with nonspecific gastroenteritis had a significantly higher concentration of IgA-containing cells than the other groups of dogs had. Significant group differences for IgG-containing cells also were evident, with dogs with IBD having the lowest cell counts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

High concentrations of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells in the villus lamina propria cannot be reliably used to distinguish IBD from other intestinal disorders in dogs. Evaluation of T cells may be the most discriminatory method for differentiating dogs with IBD from clinically normal dogs via examination of intestinal biopsy specimens. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:697–704)

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