Noninvasive kinematic analysis of the walk in healthy large-breed dogs

Heidi A. Hottinger From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Hottinger, DeCamp, Olivier, Hauptman), and College of Engineering (Soutas-Little), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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Charles E. DeCamp From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Hottinger, DeCamp, Olivier, Hauptman), and College of Engineering (Soutas-Little), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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N. Bari Olivier From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Hottinger, DeCamp, Olivier, Hauptman), and College of Engineering (Soutas-Little), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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Joe G. Hauptman From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Hottinger, DeCamp, Olivier, Hauptman), and College of Engineering (Soutas-Little), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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Robert W. Soutas-Little From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (Hottinger, DeCamp, Olivier, Hauptman), and College of Engineering (Soutas-Little), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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 PhD

Abstract

Objectives

To use computer-assisted kinematic analysis to describe the walk in healthy dogs and to adapt Fourier transformation for analysis of the data.

Design

Evaluation of normal walk in dogs, using kinematic and force plate analysis.

Sample Population

15 healthy large-breed dogs.

Procedure

Morphometric data were collected to describe the sample population. Temporal and distance variables were measured to describe the walk. Flexion and extension movements were described for the scapulohumeral, cubital, carpal, coxofemoral, femorotibial, and tarsal joints. Fourier transformation was adapted to facilitate analysis of the joint angle waveforms.

Results

Unique and complex patterns of flexion and extension movements were observed for each joint studied. The walk had consistency of movement in the sample population in temporal and distance variables and joint movements. Variances attributable to intra- and interdog differences were similar and 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the mean Fourier coefficients from which they were calculated for all 6 joints. The number of essential Fourier coefficients required to represent the joint angle waveforms was 3 for the coxofemoral joint, 5 each for the femorotibial, scapulohumeral, cubital, and carpal joints, and 6 for the tarsal joint.

Conclusions

Computer-assisted kinematic gait analysis proved to be a reliable and consistent technique for assessment of movement at the walk in dogs, and Fourier transformation was shown to be an effective tool for analysis of the kinematic data.

Clinical Relevance

The database derived from the normal sample population in this study can be used as a model of musculoskeletal function at the walk for future comparisons with disease and treatment.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:381-388)

Abstract

Objectives

To use computer-assisted kinematic analysis to describe the walk in healthy dogs and to adapt Fourier transformation for analysis of the data.

Design

Evaluation of normal walk in dogs, using kinematic and force plate analysis.

Sample Population

15 healthy large-breed dogs.

Procedure

Morphometric data were collected to describe the sample population. Temporal and distance variables were measured to describe the walk. Flexion and extension movements were described for the scapulohumeral, cubital, carpal, coxofemoral, femorotibial, and tarsal joints. Fourier transformation was adapted to facilitate analysis of the joint angle waveforms.

Results

Unique and complex patterns of flexion and extension movements were observed for each joint studied. The walk had consistency of movement in the sample population in temporal and distance variables and joint movements. Variances attributable to intra- and interdog differences were similar and 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the mean Fourier coefficients from which they were calculated for all 6 joints. The number of essential Fourier coefficients required to represent the joint angle waveforms was 3 for the coxofemoral joint, 5 each for the femorotibial, scapulohumeral, cubital, and carpal joints, and 6 for the tarsal joint.

Conclusions

Computer-assisted kinematic gait analysis proved to be a reliable and consistent technique for assessment of movement at the walk in dogs, and Fourier transformation was shown to be an effective tool for analysis of the kinematic data.

Clinical Relevance

The database derived from the normal sample population in this study can be used as a model of musculoskeletal function at the walk for future comparisons with disease and treatment.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:381-388)

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