Effects of long-term treatment with enalapril or hydralazine on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and fluid balance in dogs with naturally acquired mitral valve regurgitation

Jens Haggstrom From the Departments of Physiology (Haggstrom. Kvart, Madej) and Clinical Radiology (Hansson), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty ol Agriculture (Olsson), University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, and Clinical Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine. University Hospital, 581 85 Linkoping (Karlberg), Sweden.

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Kerstin Hansson From the Departments of Physiology (Haggstrom. Kvart, Madej) and Clinical Radiology (Hansson), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty ol Agriculture (Olsson), University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, and Clinical Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine. University Hospital, 581 85 Linkoping (Karlberg), Sweden.

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Bengt E. Karlberg From the Departments of Physiology (Haggstrom. Kvart, Madej) and Clinical Radiology (Hansson), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty ol Agriculture (Olsson), University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, and Clinical Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine. University Hospital, 581 85 Linkoping (Karlberg), Sweden.

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Clarence Kvart From the Departments of Physiology (Haggstrom. Kvart, Madej) and Clinical Radiology (Hansson), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty ol Agriculture (Olsson), University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, and Clinical Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine. University Hospital, 581 85 Linkoping (Karlberg), Sweden.

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Andrzej Madej From the Departments of Physiology (Haggstrom. Kvart, Madej) and Clinical Radiology (Hansson), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty ol Agriculture (Olsson), University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, and Clinical Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine. University Hospital, 581 85 Linkoping (Karlberg), Sweden.

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Kerstin Olsson From the Departments of Physiology (Haggstrom. Kvart, Madej) and Clinical Radiology (Hansson), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty ol Agriculture (Olsson), University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, and Clinical Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine. University Hospital, 581 85 Linkoping (Karlberg), Sweden.

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Abstract

Objective

To study long-term effects of enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and hydralazine, an arteriodilator, on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and fluid balance before and after administration of furosemide.

Animals

22 dogs with clinical signs of congestive heart failure (CHF) attributable to mitral regurgitation.

Procedure

After initial examination, 12 dogs received enalapril and 10 received hydralazine. Dogs were re-examined 3 weeks and 6 months after initial examination. Furosemide was added after the 3-week examination, and at 6 months, dogs had received furosemide for at least 4 months.

Results

Angiotensin II and aldosterone plasma concentrations were low before treatment, and only aldosterone became significantly decreased after enalapril monotherapy. Concentrations of both hormones and heart rate increased in dogs receiving hydralazine monotherapy, and fluid retention was evident. After long-term treatment with either of the 2 drugs together with furosemide, angiotensin II and aldosterone values increased in both groups. Natriuresis and kaliuresis developed in all dogs, with greatest effect in those receiving enalapril and furosemide. These dogs had decreased plasma sodium concentration, whereas potassium concentration was equally decreased in both groups. After 6 months, the enalapril group, but not the hydralazine group, had increased cardiac size. All dogs had moderate reduction of weight and were azotemic, although changes were more pronounced in those of the hydralazine group.

Conclusion

The 2 drugs have different effects on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and fluid balance in dogs with CHF. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1645–1652)

Abstract

Objective

To study long-term effects of enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and hydralazine, an arteriodilator, on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and fluid balance before and after administration of furosemide.

Animals

22 dogs with clinical signs of congestive heart failure (CHF) attributable to mitral regurgitation.

Procedure

After initial examination, 12 dogs received enalapril and 10 received hydralazine. Dogs were re-examined 3 weeks and 6 months after initial examination. Furosemide was added after the 3-week examination, and at 6 months, dogs had received furosemide for at least 4 months.

Results

Angiotensin II and aldosterone plasma concentrations were low before treatment, and only aldosterone became significantly decreased after enalapril monotherapy. Concentrations of both hormones and heart rate increased in dogs receiving hydralazine monotherapy, and fluid retention was evident. After long-term treatment with either of the 2 drugs together with furosemide, angiotensin II and aldosterone values increased in both groups. Natriuresis and kaliuresis developed in all dogs, with greatest effect in those receiving enalapril and furosemide. These dogs had decreased plasma sodium concentration, whereas potassium concentration was equally decreased in both groups. After 6 months, the enalapril group, but not the hydralazine group, had increased cardiac size. All dogs had moderate reduction of weight and were azotemic, although changes were more pronounced in those of the hydralazine group.

Conclusion

The 2 drugs have different effects on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and fluid balance in dogs with CHF. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1645–1652)

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