Use of hypertonic saline-dextran solution to resuscitate hypovolemic calves with diarrhea

Peter D. Constable From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (Constable, Morin, Thurmon), and Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt (Gohar).

Search for other papers by Peter D. Constable in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVSc, PhD
,
Hani M. Gohar From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (Constable, Morin, Thurmon), and Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt (Gohar).

Search for other papers by Hani M. Gohar in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVSc, PhD
,
Dawn E. Morin From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (Constable, Morin, Thurmon), and Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt (Gohar).

Search for other papers by Dawn E. Morin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
, and
John C. Thurmon From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (Constable, Morin, Thurmon), and Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt (Gohar).

Search for other papers by John C. Thurmon in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS

Click on author name to view affiliation information

Abstract

Objective

To determine effectiveness of a new and practical method for fluid resuscitation of dehydrated diarrheic calves.

Design

Animals randomly allocated to 4 groups with appropriate controls.

Animals

16 healthy male dairy calves, 3 to 6 days old.

Procedure

After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and hypovolemia were induced by administering milk replacer (33 ml/kg of body weight) and isotonic sucrose solution (2 g of sucrose in 19.5 ml of water/kg, PO) every 8 hours, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, IM) every 4 to 8 hours. Administration of milk replacer and furosemide was discontinued when calves became 6% dehydrated. Calves were then randomly allocated as: control (no treatment); hypertonic saline-dextran (HSD) solution (4 ml/kg, 2,400 mOsm/L NaCl in 6% dextran-70, administered once over 4 minutes, IV); isotonic alkalinizing oral electrolyte solution (55 ml/kg, PO, q 8 h); and HSD-oral electrolyte solution (combination of HSD and oral treatments). Calves were monitored for 24 hours after treatment.

Results

Significant changes included moderate dehydration (8% body weight), marked lethargy, decreased cardiac output and plasma volume, and increased blood lactate concentration, hematocrit, and serum concentrations of albumin, creatinine, sodium, and phosphate. Control calves continued to be lethargic and dehydrated, with significant increases in hematocrit and serum creatinine concentration. Increase in cardiac output and plasma volume was transient in the HSD group and waned by 2 to 8 hours after treatment. Oral electrolyte fluid administration caused slow and sustained increase in cardiac output and plasma volume, and decrease in heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and hematocrit. Combined administration of HSD-oral electrolyte solution caused immediate and sustained increase in cardiac output and plasma volume, and decrease in heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and hematocrit.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Treatment of hypovolemic diarrheic calves with IV HSD and oral electrolyte solution is superior to administration of either solution alone. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:97-104)

Abstract

Objective

To determine effectiveness of a new and practical method for fluid resuscitation of dehydrated diarrheic calves.

Design

Animals randomly allocated to 4 groups with appropriate controls.

Animals

16 healthy male dairy calves, 3 to 6 days old.

Procedure

After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and hypovolemia were induced by administering milk replacer (33 ml/kg of body weight) and isotonic sucrose solution (2 g of sucrose in 19.5 ml of water/kg, PO) every 8 hours, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, IM) every 4 to 8 hours. Administration of milk replacer and furosemide was discontinued when calves became 6% dehydrated. Calves were then randomly allocated as: control (no treatment); hypertonic saline-dextran (HSD) solution (4 ml/kg, 2,400 mOsm/L NaCl in 6% dextran-70, administered once over 4 minutes, IV); isotonic alkalinizing oral electrolyte solution (55 ml/kg, PO, q 8 h); and HSD-oral electrolyte solution (combination of HSD and oral treatments). Calves were monitored for 24 hours after treatment.

Results

Significant changes included moderate dehydration (8% body weight), marked lethargy, decreased cardiac output and plasma volume, and increased blood lactate concentration, hematocrit, and serum concentrations of albumin, creatinine, sodium, and phosphate. Control calves continued to be lethargic and dehydrated, with significant increases in hematocrit and serum creatinine concentration. Increase in cardiac output and plasma volume was transient in the HSD group and waned by 2 to 8 hours after treatment. Oral electrolyte fluid administration caused slow and sustained increase in cardiac output and plasma volume, and decrease in heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and hematocrit. Combined administration of HSD-oral electrolyte solution caused immediate and sustained increase in cardiac output and plasma volume, and decrease in heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and hematocrit.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Treatment of hypovolemic diarrheic calves with IV HSD and oral electrolyte solution is superior to administration of either solution alone. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:97-104)

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 130 130 41
PDF Downloads 33 33 4
Advertisement