Effects of topical administration of 0.5% apraclonidine on intraocular pressure, pupil size, and heart rate in clinically normal dogs

Paul E. Miller From the Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr W, Madison, WI 53706-1102.

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Marie J. Nelson From the Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr W, Madison, WI 53706-1102.

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Suzanne L. Rhaesa From the Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr W, Madison, WI 53706-1102.

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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of 0.5% apraclonidine on intraocular pressure (IOP), pupil size, and heart rate in clinically normal dogs.

Design

Randomized masked saline-controlled case study.

Animals

Nine clinically normal conditioned adult dogs of either sex.

Procedure

Normal diurnal variation in IOP, pupil size, and resting heart rate were determined from 7 AM to 7 PM (day 1). These measurements were repeated on day 2 after topical application of 60 μl of 0.5% apraclonidine to 1 randomly chosen eye of each dog. The contralateral eye received saline solution.

Results

Compared with the saline-treated fellow eye, mean IOP in the apraclonidine-treated eye was significantly reduced (3.0 mm of Hg, 16%) 8 hours after treatment. Because of mild day-to-day variations in IOP, however, IOP in the apraclonidine-treated eye on day 2 was not significantly different from day-1 baseline values obtained from the same eye. Significant mydriasis (2.1 mm, 29.7%), persisting for up to 8 hours, occurred in apraclonidine-treated eyes. Although apraclonidine did not significantly alter heart rate when all 9 dogs were viewed as a group, 4 dogs experienced a 9 to 19.5% reduction in heart rate 2 hours after treatment. Mild blanching of the conjunctiva occurred in apraclonidine-treated eyes.

Conclusions

Apraclonidine lowered IOP and, in contrast to cats where it causes miosis, induced mydriasis in dogs. Although heart rate generally is unchanged, it may be reduced in select individuals.

Clinical Relevance

Topically applied 0.5% apraclonidine may be a useful adjunct to other antiglaucoma treatment modalities in dogs, but is unlikely to be effective as the sole agent in most forms of canine glaucoma. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:79-82)

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of 0.5% apraclonidine on intraocular pressure (IOP), pupil size, and heart rate in clinically normal dogs.

Design

Randomized masked saline-controlled case study.

Animals

Nine clinically normal conditioned adult dogs of either sex.

Procedure

Normal diurnal variation in IOP, pupil size, and resting heart rate were determined from 7 AM to 7 PM (day 1). These measurements were repeated on day 2 after topical application of 60 μl of 0.5% apraclonidine to 1 randomly chosen eye of each dog. The contralateral eye received saline solution.

Results

Compared with the saline-treated fellow eye, mean IOP in the apraclonidine-treated eye was significantly reduced (3.0 mm of Hg, 16%) 8 hours after treatment. Because of mild day-to-day variations in IOP, however, IOP in the apraclonidine-treated eye on day 2 was not significantly different from day-1 baseline values obtained from the same eye. Significant mydriasis (2.1 mm, 29.7%), persisting for up to 8 hours, occurred in apraclonidine-treated eyes. Although apraclonidine did not significantly alter heart rate when all 9 dogs were viewed as a group, 4 dogs experienced a 9 to 19.5% reduction in heart rate 2 hours after treatment. Mild blanching of the conjunctiva occurred in apraclonidine-treated eyes.

Conclusions

Apraclonidine lowered IOP and, in contrast to cats where it causes miosis, induced mydriasis in dogs. Although heart rate generally is unchanged, it may be reduced in select individuals.

Clinical Relevance

Topically applied 0.5% apraclonidine may be a useful adjunct to other antiglaucoma treatment modalities in dogs, but is unlikely to be effective as the sole agent in most forms of canine glaucoma. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:79-82)

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